mercredi 22 novembre 2017

CHAD: The Infernal Circle of Bad Governance.

 
Recently, Chad managed to raise over $ 20 billion for a National Development Plan, while it was expecting $ 7 billion only
The goal of this plan is to reduce poverty and drive development. However, will these funds that will be collected contribute to the development of the country or is it a counterpart of geopolitical services that Idriss Deby will give to Westerners?

"Vision 2030, the Chad we want"

         Since 2003, Chad has initiated two National Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (N.P.R.S. 1 and 2), four National Development Plans (P.N.D. 2003-2006, P.N.D. 2008-2011, P.N.D. 2013-2015 and P.N.D. 20017-2021). To this must be added the P.N.Ds 2022-2026 and 2027-2030 contained in the document "Vision 2030, the Chad we want", for which, it will still be necessary to raise funds. These documents, which were supposed to pave the way for harmonious development, proved to be fiascos. Worse, they were opportunities for enrichment for the rulers, without any real impact on the lives of the Chadian people.

According to the I.D.H. the country ranks 186th out of 188 in 2016.

         In fact, the country ranks 186th out of 188 countries according to the 2016 Human Development Index. In addition, only 52% of the population has access to drinking water compared to 3% of the population to electricity according to the Bank. African Development. More than 3.7 million people are food insecure in 2016 according to the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Certainly, progress is being made in the field of infrastructures. But, they do not obey the standards of achievement because the owner is required to wet the beard of a whole chain of command.

Fiasco of the elitist approach to development!

         The failure of Development Strategies and Plans is linked to the adoption of a "top-down" approach to development. Elitist approaches therefore, disconnected from the real needs of the people "from below"; irresponsible because of lack of transparency and accountability, favoring the bureaucrat over the entrepreneur. But only the latter can create wealth and jobs. Also, with such a dirigiste approach of the economy, one could only create corruption, mismanagement, rent instead of creating businesses, wealth and jobs. In other words, the donors, in addition to the dictatorship bonus, give a premium to bad governance and bad economic policies.

Nepotism, corruption and tribalisation of the administration.

         Nepotism, corruption, mismanagement, the "tribalisation" of the administration, ..., are the evils that undermine the Chadian state. The country ranks 40th out of 59 African countries and 159th out of 176 countries according to the Transparency International 2O16 ranking. In addition, the 2016 Mo Ibrahim index, which assesses governance, ranks the country 51st out of 54 countries. In his report, "Chad S.A", the NGO SWISSAID, clearly castigates the patrimonial management of oil revenues. The country has garnered more than $ 13 billion in oil revenues since 2003. Yet, 50% of the population still lives below the poverty line. The reason is that "Deby would have made Chad a true family S.A."

Chad became the "Déby S.A."

         Finally, Chad is one of the countries where the business climate remains the most hostile in Africa, thus discouraging entrepreneurship. The Doing Business 2017 Index credits the country 48th out of 53 African countries, while according to the Fraser Institute's Economic Freedom Index, Chad is ranked among the 11 countries on the continent that repress economic freedom. If Chad is a failing state, how then explain the enthusiasm of the Western partners who continue to bet on the soldier-Deby?

The West needs the soldier  Idriss Déby!

         The strong infatuation of donors is explained by the importance that Chad represents in their security and power projection device. Thus, as part of the fight against terrorism, Chad is at the forefront with its contingents in Mali, Nigeria and Cameroon. In addition, about 3,000 Chadian soldiers are expected to participate in the G5 Sahel force, 5,000 are engaged in the Multinational Joint Task Force (M.N.J.T.F.) in the fight against the Boko Haram sect. 1150 operate in Mali within the framework of MI.N.U.S.M.A.. The country has also intervened in the Central African Republic as part of peacekeeping operations.

Strategic ally in the fight against terrorism and immigration.

        
These soldiers who should be used to ensure the safety of the people have become, in a way, a means of blackmail and exchange to drain donations and funding. President Idriss Déby Itno demonstrated this during his interview with the journalists of Radio France Internationale, on the "International" show, threatening to withdraw his forces in the fight against terrorism, if his Western partners did not come to him. help. The strong mobilization for the financing of this P.N.D. therefore responds to the logic of preserving a strategic ally in the fight against terrorism.
         As regards the fight against illegal immigration, Chad is one of the transit countries of migrants. Cooperation with France in the context of securing borders to fight against migrants is under way. Migrant sorting centers (hotspots) are envisaged as part of this cooperation. The country therefore benefits from a rent linked to its geographical position. To get funding, he agrees to do the thankless work.

Strategic subcontracting against bad governance and economic malpractices.

         At the military-strategic level, many initiatives are based on the country's positioning. The operational command of the Barkhane Force, the Headquarters of the Multinational Joint Task Force of the L.C.B.C., is in Chad. The country is part of the U.S. anti-terrorism (T.S.C.T.P.), it houses a French base of projection and attack that are advanced positions for indirect control of the country. Chad therefore provides strategic outsourcing to the Powers while sacrificing the supreme interests of the Chadian people. The country will offer its services to these powers, in return, we will close our eyes to the abuses, financial and economic malpractices. The big loser in this haggling is the Chadian people.
         In short, the N.D.P. can only benefit the Chadian people if the donors make funding conditional on true democratization and good governance. Otherwise, the funding will only strengthen President Déby's hold on the country by giving him even more means to enslave his people.
___________________________________________

Alfred Ndegoto, Chadian researcher. Article published in collaboration with Libre Afrique, published in Info-Afrique on October 2, 2017

lundi 6 novembre 2017

PUBLICATION OF THE FIRST BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF AFRICAN.



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         These personalities are not only bridges between generations, but are true lighthouses for future generations. When they are not lighthouses, they shine in the sky like stars that brighten the monotony of the time they live. Sometimes they pass very quickly like comets that mark history or shooting stars that see a minority of observers.Whether they attract our sympathy or arouse the antipathy of the majority of us, they become our benchmarks or references.
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samedi 4 novembre 2017

The Chimeric vaccine "curative" against V.I.H./.S.I.D.A. of Drs Lurhuma Zirimwabagabo André (R.D.C.) and Daniel Zagury Shawfik (Egypt).



Lurhuma André: Ordinary youth, classical training.

        
Born at Bukavu in the province of South Kivu, he attended primary and secondary school in this town. With a scholarship, he obtained a doctorate in medicine at the Catholic University of Louvain and specializes in Immunology. He becomes a professor at the University of Kinshasa. First Zairian immunologist, he became head of department of internal medicine, then director of University Clinics of Kinshasa. He conducts research on Trypanosomiasis, Tuberculosis, Malaria and especially Cancer. As soon as V.I.H./S.I.D.A appeared in Kinshasa in 1983, he developed a rapid test to detect H.I.V. in H.I.V.-positive people.

The mirage of the healing vaccine "Mubarak / Mobutu 1"

         Dr. Daniel Zagury Shawfik, Egyptian doctor, professor at the University Marie Curie of Paris was a friend of the American professor Robert Charles Gallo with whom he had written his thesis in immuno-virology between 1987 and 1990.
         A few months later the Congolese musician Luambo Makiadi "Franco" released in collaboration with Sam Mangwana, the song "Attention na S.I.D.A" which challenges the African and World Society. Alas, he was a victim of this pandemic on October 12, 1989.
         In December 1994, Dr. Zagury met in Kinshasa, Dr. André Lurhuma Zirimwabagabo, professor at University Clinics in Kinshasa and director of the Center for Medical Research. He suggests that he prepare together a preventive vaccine against V.I.H./S.I.D.A. But Zairian begins with research on a curative vaccine. They go to the hospital to take blood samples from the H.I.V. on two affected patients. The Egyptian reports them to the Parisian laboratory. He separates white blood cells that he processes with formaldehyde to inactivate the A.I.D.S. virus. The first A.I.D.S. vaccine was born according to Zagury. He returns the inactivated virus to Dr. Zirimwabagabo L. who obtains permission from the Department of Health to inject this inactivated virus into two patients.
         Dr. Z. Lurhuma reassures Dr. Zagury Shawfik, "All is well, one of the two patients even left the hospital to go to work."

"A news of a nature to overthrow Africa and the world".

         The next day, Zairian immunizes eight other patients whose results will never be known. This does not prevent Dr. Zirimwabagabo from moving to the manufacture of a vaccine candidate by inserting the gene that encodes the V.I.H. envelope protein (called GP160) plays a determining role in cell infection, because it allows the virus to bind to the target cell receptors, an essential step for the virus to enter the cells and multiply there. The genetic construction is carried out in the United States by Dr. Bernard Moos, of the National Institutes of Health (N.I.H.) and addressed to Zagury. This is a classic method that pose in scientific arguments.
         Dr. Zagury, who is H.I.V.-negative, agrees to receive this preventive vaccine. Thirty days after being injected by this vaccine candidate, he produced neutralizing antibodies. Several other public health doctors, as well as patients, had agreed to receive the vaccine candidate. Apart from this experience, he decided to continue the experiments in Zaire.

A fatal ethical omission and a "scientifically" unacceptable secret!

        
In 1987, the journal "Nature" presents his results, including his own immunization and data obtained in Zaire.
         In the presentation of his data, Dr. Zagury fails to mention that tests were carried out in Zaire in nine children aged two to twelve whose fathers died from S.I.D.A. and the mothers were infected by the V.I.H .. To justify himself, he claims that he got the green light from the Zairian Ethics Committee! Which committee? What scientific ethics?
         As soon as he learns, Dr Bernard Moos, of the American Health Authorities (N.I.H.) who carried out the vaccine construction and provided significant quantities to Dr. Shawfik Zagury is quick to point out that he produced them for animal experiments and not for human trials. Especially since Dr. Lurhuma had just claimed that the virus H.I.V. was mainly transmitted to contacts of foreign persons or abroad. One of his great wrongs was to absolutely keep secret the formula of his remedy at the moment when all the pharmaceutical companies are riveted on the Pandemic!
         In the United States, critics become harsh and even violent. The Mobutu regime is at the bottom of the scale and this fake vaccine affair gives the American press the opportunity to make fun of Zaire. He becomes virtually the author of a bad hoax of which he is accustomed. The "Wall Street Journal" writes, "It's like a brave B-movie, but it pays nothing."
In December 1988, the "Los Angeles Times" speaks squarely of fraud of which Dr. Lurhuma is entirely guilty. In Paris, the newspaper "Le Monde" title on "The dangers of wild trials".
         In the scientific community, opinions are divided. It is obvious that this pioneering work, carried out in a country with no expertise in the field of clinical studies and with a vaccine whose qualification is far from meeting international standards, poses problems of medical ethics.

"If A.I.D.S. existed, Bomboko ** would already be dead, is not it, doctor?" then joking Mobutu!

         Furious at the American reaction, President Mobutu, who had helped finance Professor Lurhuma's work and hoped to gain some prestige, would have ordered seropositive soldiers to vaccinate themselves at M.M.1. and serve as guinea pigs. No scientific journal had the courage to follow the results.
         Despite the harsh criticism of the American Press, Dr. Daniel Zagury Shawfik was the star of the third conference on the V.I.H./S.I.D.A. in Washington in June 1987. In the evening of November 1987, at the Zaire Trade Center (C.C.I.Z.), Dr. Lurhuma and Zagury were welcomed as heroes. Dr. Lurhuma spoke first: "We have just developed a treatment for S.I.D.A. called Mr.M.1, from the names of our two respective heads of state, Mr. Mobutu and Mr. Mubarak. The results of the first tests allow us to hope that an inexpensive remedy will be quickly put on the market ".

         Four years later in 1991, at the Saint-Antoine hospital in Paris, three patients with S.I.D.A. in the terminal phase have died following the injection of a vaccine virus preparation given by Dr. Zagury. Meanwhile, Mobutu offers Dr. Lurhuma a beautiful villa at Mandariniers Avenue 4, at Kinshasa/Gombe, as a reward for his "brilliant" discovery.

From the formal prohibition of the vaccine to the stigma of its authors!

        
Professor Luc Antoine Montagnier, discoverer of S.I.D.A. in 1983, wrote: "The administration of preparations containing potentially infectious vaccinia virus to seropositive subjects should be suspended", vaccinia is a dangerous virus in immunocompromised individuals. In 1992, the doctor  Zagury is found not guilty by France.
         In Kinshasa, the vaccine that took the name of Mobutu-Mubarak 1 (M.M.1.) becomes a subject of mockery. The two doctors Egyptian and Zairian become subject of taunt. A very popular French beer then in Kinshasa brand "Castel" is translated by: "C
ure anti AIDS Tested and Experienced by Lurhuma". The episode of M.M.1. was a snub for Mobutu until his death in September 1997. While denying the existence of A.I.D.S., he had to deplore the death of A.I.D.S. of his eldest son Niwa Mobutu Jean-Paul in September 16 1994. His younger son Kongulu Mobutu, also dead of A.I.D.S., followed him on  September, 24, 1998.
         Become the laughingstock of Radio-Sidewalk in Kinshasa, Dr. André Zirimwabagabo Lurhuma died unexpectedly in Kinshasa on June 1, 1995. A foundation that bears his name, created in 1996 by his friend, the former Minister of Foreign Affairs
, Mushobekwa Kalimba wa Katana (1943-2004) in Kinshasa is administered by his son Patrick Lurhuma ... while the Catholic University of Bukavu (U.C.B.) created in November 1989 in Karhale has quickly erase his name from the medical laboratory that had once worn him proudly.
---------------------------------
** Justin-Marie Bomboko Lokumba Iselenge (1928-2014), Congolese politician, hot rabbit, occupied almost all prestigious positions in the Democratic Republic of Congo since 1960.

Filmography:
-NGANGURA Mweze (ex D.), MM1 and the AIDS VACCINE. the discovery of MM1 by Dr. Lurhuma of the University of Kinshasa, Documentary.
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