lundi 26 janvier 2015

Uganda: GSM Thief infected with Ebola virus.

 
Thwarting the attention of the guards, a 40-year-old managed to enter incognito in a Ugandan hospital in Kibaale district in the west of the country to steal the mobile phone of a patient. Evil took him ...

         The theft took place in the unit of care of the hospital of Kagadi reserved for people with Ebola virus. Ebola is characterized by sudden fever rise accompanied by bleeding. In the absence of effective treatment, they often end up be fatal. The Ebola virus is also terribly contagious: the risk of spreading among hospital staff are very high, especially if the sterilization of equipment is not guaranteed. The outbreak occurred in early July in Western countries before spreading to the capital Kampala.

         The injured patient also died of the disease shortly after reporting the theft to the clinic's security guards.

         As for the thief, he already had the main symptoms of the virus when the police got their hands on him, says the Ugandan newspaper The Daily Monitor. The online newspaper did not specify whether the thief was able to survive the consequences of this contamination.

            On November 23, 2012, the Ugandan Ministry of Health has reported 10 cases (6 cases confirmed and 4 probables), including 5 deaths in Luweero and Kampala.

mardi 20 janvier 2015

Guinea / Haiti: François Makandal, the Guinean Mandingo inspirer of the Haitian Revolution.

 
Haitian Separatists who  declared the "First Black Republic of the Continent" in 1789 were inspired by him, and the peasant guerrillas that will stand the North American occupation of the island in 1915. Today, when a popular revolt broke out in slums and coffee plantations, one can hear some voices singing: "Here the one-handed walk among his people, here walk Mandingo, who remained in this world ... Here Makandal walk..."

In 1779, a slave ship docked on the Cape Haiti, north of the island.

        
Loaded from Guinea, a slave ship has on board two hundred slaves, only arriving in Cape Haiti forty survivors among the slaves. The others died during the Atlantic crossing and their bodies were thrown to the sharks. Among the survivors is François Makandal, a young black Mandingo and sculptural body with a deep voice, strings do not seem to hurt. At the auction, the French, Le Normant Mézy, owner of sugarcane plantations in Limbe buys him.

A mighty and mystical man.

        
Makandal cutting sugar cane like no one else, but he loses an arm in the mill and began tending livestock. He would then fled after arousing the jealousy of his master seducing young black slave Zumie, whose White was also smitten; his rival would have found an excuse to mistreat him. He begins to feel useless. Nostalgia for his land and his people came over, and the pain occupies his thoughts. However, he does not let win, confides black gods and find a reason to live in the observation of nature. He thus has many plants, different from his homeland, but also instructive that. These are rare plants, which nobody else has paid attention before. He discovered a fungus that makes you sick and can kill ... and he gives the room the dog of his boss and owner. And while he looks at the collapse, Makandal has in mind the suffering of his people ...
        
One day he disappears from the property: he is not found in the courtyard of the cows or in the kitchen, and even less in large barrack or sleep slaves. There is nowhere. He becomes elusive for eight years. He became a charismatic leader and unites bands runaway slaves. He creates a network of secret organizations in plantations. Against them, he leads several nocturnal activities of slaves, by the light of torches and kill their owners.

We must find the Mandingo, dead or alive!

        
"Makandal is a Mandingo and each Mandingo is a rebel. He is now brown negro and the one that will meet the need to inform me," cries the French to his slaves.
        
Comes the rainy season the rivers and streams increase in volume and overflow their banks, but Makandal shows no signs of life. The rainy season passes and rivers back to their beds ... One day Tinoel, a slave who believed that his friend had died receives a message: "I sent for you because our time has come, the time of the Negroes. We have no weapons, but we have the wisdom of the Warrior Run, and intelligence of the great Oxosse. "
        
Within weeks, the poisonous fungus invades the stables and pastures. Cows, cattle, horses and sheep fall by the hundreds, covering the area of the smell of carrion. The plague is soon to enter the house of the white man. Makandal proclaims the "extermination campaign" for the creation of "an empire of free Blacks."
        
Soldiers and supervisors set off in the hunt ... they search every corner, but did not find him. Yet the eyes of his brothers see him everywhere: "He wears the costume of animals, -they say- he appropriates the course of rivers, speaks with the voice of the wind, knows every tree, every cave ...".

Makandal becomes a living legend!

        
His epic lasts four years during which he turned into lizard, cobra, bird or other creature. Four years that he comes out of hiding to attend the rites during which the African gods are worshiped. Arrive December, time of Negroes festivities in Haiti. After the sacred drum rises the silhouette of Makandal. No one greets him, but his affectionate gaze meets that of each of those present and hot water bowls pass from hand to hand until those visitor assoiffé.Toute ambient joy fact forget all this world than whites are still there, and that treason is possible ...

Betrayed by one of his own, he was captured.

        
And twenty soldiers prevail before the astonished gaze of his brothers. The sad song of the drum sounds from the Artibonite River to the Turtle Island. In the central square, everything is ready: the authorities are comfortably installed in the church, and the slaves are near the bonfire, forced by their teachers to see the "fire of the example".
          Accused of "seduction, desecration and poisoning" by the French colonial authority, he was sentenced to death by a judgment on  January 20, 1758 and delivered the same day to the stake.

"Makandal remained among us in the kingdom of this world."

        
Makandal speaks with Oxosse and Run: "Good grief of my people, I ask you to let me stay in this world, to continue the fight for my people."
        
The flames begin to rise to his feet; Makandal screams, his ties undone and his body is stretched in the air, so over the multitude observer. As he struggles in the fire, the post which he is attached transfers and Mackandal jumps out of the pyre. Slaves exclaim: "Macandal saved! ". A jailer rushed to kill a sword, but he is prevented. Makandal is then linked on a board and placed back into the flames, this time the burn. Then he disappears. Blacks priests are getting the message: "Makandal remained among us in the kingdom of this world."
         Separatists who claim the "First Black Republic of the continent" in 1789 were inspired by him, and the peasant guerrillas that will stand the North American occupation of the island in 1915. Today, when a popular revolt broke out in slums and coffee plantations, one can hear some voices singing "Here the one-handed walk with his people here walk Mandingo, who remained in this world ... Here Makandal walk..."
        
Running François Makandal above thirty-three years the Haitian Revolution of 1791, the first successful revolt of Black slaves, a prelude to the establishment on January 1, 1804 of Haiti (former Saint-Domingue) as the first free black republic in the world.
-------------------------------------------------- --------------------
-Kintto Lucas, Rebeliones Indígenas y Negras en América Latina, Ediciones Abya Yala, 1992.

lundi 12 janvier 2015

Spain / Portugal: The slave trade reported malaria in America.

 
The "Plasmodium falciparum" the most violent malaria parasite is of African origin.

         Under this strange name hides the most dangerous of the five species of malaria which decimate the world (Asia, America, Oceania) and five countries that W.H.O. class in its"Europe": Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, the Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Turkey. This parasite is of African origin.
         According to a study by French researchers of the Research Unit miste M.I.V.E.G.E.C. (Diseases and vectors: ecology, genetics, evolution and control) and published on December 26, 2011 in the "Proceedings" of the Academy of American Science (P.N.A.S.).
         Thanks to the collaboration of biologists from around the world, a collection of a thousand samples of P. falciparum covering all its range could be gathered. It then took perform the analysis of certain genetic markers to trace the "tracks" of the pathogen. Several findings have been obtained. First, it appeared that the P. falciparum that are currently found in Latin America (because this species lives in the tropics) are different from those circulating in Asia, which invalidates the thesis Strait Bering. In fact, the South American parasites are clearly of African origin.

The parasite was on board of the various slave ships.

         Another lesson from the study: the mosquitoes came in several times and independently, in a time ranging from five to two centuries before today. All indices thus converge to suggest that Plasmodium falciparum crossed the ocean aboard slave ships.
         It was found two major main roads it has borrowed. The first leading north from South America (Colombia), the second leading further south (Brazil). These two routes coincide with the division of the New World between Spain and Portugal, conducted under the auspices of Pope Alexander VI Borgia (1431-1503) in Tordesillas (in the Spanish province of Valladolid) on June 7, 1494.

The Bull "Inter Caetera" of Pope Alexander VI Borgia in 1493.

         This colonial division of Latin America is still reflected today in the languages spoken there: the Spanish Central America and the westernmost part of the South American continent, the Portuguese the butt cake that today Brazil. The mid-sixteenth century to the mid nineteenth century, it is estimated that more than 5 million Africans were deported to Brazil, where they landed mainly in Rio and Salvador de Bahia, the first capital of the colony. On Spanish side, the slave trade was the main destinations: Cuba, Veracruz, Mexico, and Cartagena in Colombia.

The price of the most despicable human trafficking of history!

         It is likely that the introduction of P. falciparum in South America has been a recurring process, which lasted as long as African slaves were deported to the mainland by both the Spanish and Portuguese empires. These recurrent introductions certainly played an important role in shaping the genetic diversity currently observed in the two South American tanks.
         The Andes, which form a natural geographic barrier between Central America and western South America from the rest of the continent, may have played a role in preventing these tanks to homogenize during the course of the history.  
"A wonderful example where history, geopolitics, geography, and one of the vilest that ever existed shops intermingle with biology. an example also highlights the major invasive capacity of the parasite causing the malaria ".

mardi 6 janvier 2015

Mexico / U.S.A.: Barack Obama is not the first black American president!

 
A lot of people thinks Barack Obama is the first black American president! This is false because the first black american president is Vicente Ramon Guerrero Saldana. He is the second president of Mexico in 1829. If we integrate the Caribbean to North America, the first black head of state would be indeed the Governor-General of the independent Republic of Haiti: Jacques Dessalines in 1804. But this is another story.

Who was Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldaña, nicknamed "el Negro Guerrero (Black Warrior)"?

        
54 years before Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) signs the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, Vicente Guerrero remains in American remembered for having abolished slavery in Mexico. The one his political enemies call him "el Negro Guerrero" was cataloged mulatto if he was from the United States.
        
According to biographer Theodore G. Vincent, Guerrero had African ancestors, Spanish and American Indians. His African branch coming from the direction of his father, Juan Pedro, who held "the profession of muleteer almost exclusively for Afro-Mexicans". His grandfather was a slave or while descending from African slaves from the kingdom of Kongo.
        
He was born on August 10, 1782 at Tixla (now Tixla Guerrero), near Acapulco. He joined the Mexican fighters struggling to get rid of Spanish rule in 1810 under another black leader, General Maria Morelos Teclo Pérez y Pavon, a Catholic priest who played a leading role in this struggle until his execution on December 22, 1815. as Guerrero, he is considered a national hero and his face adorns the currency note of 50 pesos and a Mexican State bears his name.

Access to the power of big black hero of Mexico.

        
In the year following the death of Morelos, Guerrero became general of the rebels and participated in battles until Mexico gained independence in 1821. He had fought 491 battles undefeated with troops formed the majority of Blacks and Métis. In 1924 and in 1828, he ran for election as President of the Republic. Finally convinced that the elections were rigged before, he and his supporters' revolt against the new government. Guerrero becomes the second president of Mexico on April 1, 1929.

 
Before Abraham Lincoln in the United States, abolitionism cost him his life.

        
On the anniversary of the independence of Mexico, on September 15, 1929, he abolished the slave in the country, prompting many historians to describe Abraham Lincoln of Mexico, while it would be more accurate to qualify Lincoln "Vicente Guerrerro of United States". This is also urged Texans to separate from Mexico in 1836. He decreed slavery and emancipation of all slaves. The Article 3 of the decree provided for compensation of former slave owners to the extent of the means of the government. He had appointed Pedro Ascencio, an Indian native to the rank of General of the Mexican Army at one time or Indians were very low social class.
         He made a brilliant speech on democracy before Abraham Lincoln. He decided to finance a revolt to free the island of Cuba and the Haitian republic.
        
And as Lincoln later, Guerrero paid him dearly: three months after having abolished slavery, he was ousted by a military coup on December 4, 1829. Two years later, he joined the ranks of the rebels fighting the new government. Betrayed to the Minister of War, General Antonio Facio,by a claimed friend, the Genoese Francisco Picaluga against the sum of 50,000 pesos (250,000 gold francs), he was convicted of rebellion on January 15, 1831 in Oaxaca and passed through the weapons at Cuilapanle on February 14, 1831.
        
His hometown was named Tixla Guerrero and his remains rest in the mausoleum located at the base of "El Angel de la Independencia" in Mexico alongside other heroes of independence.
--------------------------
References:
-Vincent Theodore G., Guerrero: The legacy of Vicente Guerrero, Mexico first black president, University of Florida Press, 2001.