mercredi 29 octobre 2014

The discovery of America in the eleventh century - Did the Persian Abu Rehan Al-Birumi discovered America before anyone else!

 
Who really discovered America?

        
Abu Rehan Al-Biruni, a Muslim scholar, may have discovered the New World centuries before Columbus, with the sole power of his calculations.
        
For over a hundred years, scholars, enthusiasts and wacky pose the question: Who really discovered America? Some theories, totally eccentric, suggest the presence of Phoenicians in Rhode Island or in Chinese which was not yet the San Francisco Bay.

And then the Vikings?

        
In 1950, Thor Heyerdahl, Norwegian anthropologist and browser colorful, said that Peruvians aboard sailboats balsa, were regularly back and forth between the Americas and Polynesia, long before Columbus takes the Wed.
        
More seriously, the Scandinavian specialists have studied the Norse sagas, in search of evidence of prior discovery of the North American coast by their ancestors. The history of the Vikings splitting the waves aboard their ships to explore and colonize Greenland is now well known. It has been confirmed by archaeological excavations along the Greenland coast.
        
In the early twentieth century, the Norwegian Professor Gustav Storm has also demonstrated that the Northmen had made ​​several trips to Canada, to lands they named Markland (southern Labrador Current) Helluland (The Baffin Island) and Vinland (Nova Scotia).

The merchants of Central Asia.

        
At about the time the Vikings explored Greenland, a discovery of a different kind took place far from any ocean. For thousands of years, merchants from what is now Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Afghanistan ferrying goods in long caravans in Eurasia. Returned home, these Central Asian merchants recounted their adventures, recording detailed information on the geography and climate of the lands they visited, the stories which were then collected and studied by local scholars.

The Persian explorer Abu Rehan Al-Birumi.

        
The brightest of these scholars was Abu Rehan Al-Biruni (973-1048). Born in Kath, near the Aral Sea, he had in his youth familiar with mathematics, astronomy, mineralogy, geography, cartography, geometry and trigonometry. He spoke Persian, Arabic and Khwarezmian language, the language of the Sunni dynasty that reigned over a large part of Iran. Thereafter, he also learned Sanskrit.
        
At 17, Biruni calculated the latitude and longitude of Kath. Then the help of ancient Greek sources, collection of geographical data in the Mediterranean world, which he began to add the coordinates of other places at the four cardinal points. Having read ancient authors such as Ptolemy (90-168 A.D.), but also drawing on more recent sources and its own field observations, he deduced that the Earth is round. At age 30, he uses the most sophisticated of its time systems to calculate the precise circumference.

His main discovery: the Earth is a sphere!

         He
came to the conclusion that the Earth is a sphere, he began to put on the new world map he draws all the known places in his time.          This is where he realizes that, according to his calculations, the entire Eurasian mass, the westernmost point of Africa's most eastern point of China, is only two-fifths of the globe. What he has on the remaining three fifths? Most geographers of antiquity until the eleventh century, considered the Eurasian continent was surrounded by a "World Ocean". But such a world covered with water does not he may be unbalanced? Biruni concluded that one or more other continents must exist. These lands are they wild deserts or shelter populations they? Plunging into its data on latitudes and longitudes of known places, he finds that the man people a broad north-south strip that runs from Russia to southern India and the heart of Africa.

Biruni’s conclusion: America was really a New World!

        
It is in 1037 that Biruni reaches its historical conclusions about the existence of the New World, based on his research for thirty years. Can we say he discovered America during the first third of the eleventh century? In a sense, no, of course. He never laid eyes on the New World or on land which he speaks in his writings. While the Vikings, they have well and truly arrived in North America just before the year 1000, even if they did not understand at the time what they had found. But Biruni deserves at least as much as they title discoverer of America. Especially as the intellectual process by which he ended up finding a new continent is no less stunning than its conclusions themselves. Because rather than random methods of marine navigation Vikings, he used a clever combination of meticulous observations, carefully collected quantitative data and rigorous logic. It took another five centuries before nearly as rigorous an analysis is applied to the exploration of the world.

The Adventures of Saint Brendan of Clonfert.

        
Al-Biruni beautiful claim the title of "virtual discoverer" of the Americas, the Irish Saint Brendan of Clonfert was, according to some accounts, joined the New World much earlier. Born around 484, the monk Brendan says "Browser" dares to 544 in the Atlantic in search of the Garden of Eden. On his return, he claims to have discovered a similar island paradise.
        
From the year 900, a magical version of the adventures of the holy man travels in Europe. Some scholars believe it could have discovered America.
        
In 1976, the Irish Tim Severin, aboard comparable to those of the sixth century, reached Newfoundland via Iceland craft, demonstrating the feasibility of the journey of St. Brendan.
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Excerpts from the article by S. Frederick Starr, published in December inHistory Today” in London.

dimanche 19 octobre 2014

Central African Republic: Former President Michel Djotodia decorated with jewelry in fake!

 
Far from the pomp of the coronation of Emperor Bokassa 1.

         In Bangui, at an auspicious ceremony, inspired by the coronation of Napoleon I, President Jean-Bedel Bokassa was crowned Emperor of the Central African Empire on December 4, 1977. More than 3,500 guests from forty countries are present, but no head of state moves for the occasion. The cost of the lavish coronation as emperor is estimated at 20 million U.S.D.. On September 20, 1979, when Bokassa I was visiting Libya, a non-violent coup led by former President David Dacko and backed by the French special forces, overthrew the emperor. David Dacko (the former President) restored the republic on September 21, 1979. This is the famous "Operation Barracuda".
         When Bokassa Ist died of a heart attack in 1996, his gold medals, his crowns of gold and diamonds, his precious jewels that should have belonged to the Central African state have disappeared. The Central African Republic becomes a bum State. The richness of Bokassa rest his descendants: 39 children recognized, given to him by 17 women of all nationalities.

Fake medals for an interim president, former rebel.

         Last former president of Central African Republic, Michel Djotodia, was the victim of a hoax. At his swearing in, 36 years after the Bokassa coronation, he wore fake ornaments.
         The Director of Treasury, Judes Alex Ketté, was accused of embezzling money ornaments. He was arrested by the authorities.
         The Director General of the Central Treasury, Judes Alex Ketté, was arrested for fraud after authorities have discovered that the decorations worn by President Michel Djotodia during his swearing-in, on Augustus 18, 2013, were false, according to investigators. On the instructions of the public prosecutor, Judes Alex Ketté was taken into custody to view the gendarmerie. He was accused of stealing some of the money for the purchase of jewelry to adorn by President Michel Djotodia, at the ceremony of swearing.
       
The dream of a former official: Restoring the splendor of the empire!


         On March 23, 2013, former civil servant of ministry finance and the Plan, Michel Djotodia proclaimed himself president of the Central African Republic after a rebellion that now pits Christians to Muslims. He still led the splendor of the coronation of Bokassa I to access the presidency: jewelry, medals, gances and golden cords. To ensure his safety, he called on French mercenary, fromRoussel G-Sécurité” a french company to the chagrin of the Elysee. He is knighted president by a national transitional council. He decided to be sworn on August 18, 2013.
         But this is one of his former colleagues of finances Ministry play him a dirty trick. A president of a banana republic, must wear fake jewels and medals!

To him the jewelry in CFA francs to me their value in Euros!

           According to a source in the Central police, the director of the Treasury pocketed a portion of the amount for the ornaments to the tune of 600 million CFA francs (910,000 euros), with the complicity of a Senegalese jeweler, a man 'Central business and responsible of the Chancellery. Upon his arrest, he was sacked. Furthermore, it was also within the scope of prosecution for embezzlement and forgery.
This is not the first time that Jules Ketté Alex finds himself embroiled in a case of misappropriation. Indeed, it was previously arrested in 2011 in connection with the investigation into a scandal of misuse of more than two billion CFA (3.05 million euros) at the expense of National Urban Transport Company (SO.NA.T.U.), a public company created thanks to funding from India.

 Djotodia Nondokro Am-Michel: A Muslim unbaptized who bears a Christian name.

         Djotodia Nondokro Am-Michel was born in 1949 into a Muslim family of Goula ethnic group in the region of Vakaga where he was called Deya, named after his father, former fighter of the French army.          Very young, he left his village to live as Gordil at Birao the capital of Vakaga, where his father touched a military pension from France.
         He is enrolled in primary school in Birao and in the college at Bambari where a Christian teacher assigns him the name "Michel", presumably so he can more easily obtain a scholarship in order to study abroad. Indeed, after the end of his secondary school, he flew to the Soviet Union, where he will live for some fourteen years.
         Upon his return, Djotodia lives between Vakaga, where he started a family and created a business, and Bangui, the capital, where he held various positions in Government: at ministry of Finance and Plan.
         In 1998, he entered politics by running for election to Birao under the banner of the Movement for Democracy and Development (M.D.D.) of former president David Dacko (1930-2003), but fails against the candidate of President Ange Félix Patassé (1937-2011).
         Official polyglot (he speaks Angalis Arabic, French and Russian) to request the position of consular representative in the Darfur town of Nyala escapes him somewhat, but he ends up getting it in 2005 in favor of a change of government. Indeed, after the coming to power of François Bozizé in 2003, Djotodia approaches the new regime through Yakite Levy and Jean-François Bozizé, the son of the head of state.

A treacherous and dishonest politician like Rabah
Rabah Fadl Allah (1845-1900)!

         Before the 2005 presidential elections, he pretends to support Bozizé with the Coordination frameworks to support the candidacy of the latter for the coveted post of consul of the Central African Republic in Nyala few weeks later. He soon began to conspire against Bozizé who reminds Bangui.
         The Muslim Sudan prefers to deport him to Cotonou, Benin where he family. At the head of the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity (U.F.D.R.), it triggers the first civil war.
         But Benin refuses to support his rebellion against the regime of François Bozizé. On November 20, 2007, he was arrested (with his colleague and spokesperson Abakar Sabon) by the Benin authorities on request of President François Bozizé. In February  2008, after eighteen months of imprisonment without trial, Djotodia is released on condition to participate in the peace agreements with the regime increasingly unpopular François Bozizé. While his colleague joins the government, he remains for 4 years in Cotonou,  where he remarried a businesswoman.

His imprisonment won him the aura of a martyr and leader of the rebellion.

         In December 2012, Djotodia returned to Central  Africa and joined the underground to found Séléka, a coalition of political parties and rebel forces opposed to the C.A.R. president. He became the key figure and head of 20,000 Chadian mercenaries, Libyan and Sudanese, quickly captured a large part of the country.
         Despite the awkward support of the South African army, Bozizé losing the war accepts peace agreements Libreville in January 2013, appoints a prime minister from the opposition and the rebels incorporated into the national unity government led by counsel Nicolas Tiangaye.
         Djotodia occupies the key post of Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of National Defence from February 2, 2013, but these agreements are violated by Seleka Bozizé who  hunt Bozize from power in March 2013. The latter fled to Cameroon then wanders between Paris, Kampala to permanently exile in Bujumbura, Burundi. Djotodia proclaimed himself president of the Republic March 25, 2013, he  tried unsuccessfully to dissolve Seleka.

The country descended from bad to worse.

         After the peace agreement in Libreville, Gabon in January 2013, he was appointed Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of National Defence in the national unity government headed by Nicolas Siangaye. At the head of the Seleka, he removed President François Bozizé from power on March 24, 2013 and became president of the Republic. On April 13, 2013, a National Transitional Council confirmed him to his post.
         On August 18, 2013, he took the oath as president of transition adorned with false ornaments and fake medals ... with swindling the General Manager of the Treasury and a Senegalese jeweler!

The most tumultuous presidency and the shortest of CAR.


         He resigned at the same time that Prime Minister Nicolas January 10, 2014 request of Heads of States of the Economic Community of Central Africa (C.E.M.A.C.). He was replaced by Catherine Samba-Panza, after a very short acting parliament speaker Alexander Ferdinand N'Guendet. He took refuge in Benin. His regime lasted just 18 months. With the chaos sparked by his accession to power, the Central African Republic was definitely disorganized.

The French remember the head and the hand "trenches" of Commander Francois-Joseph-Amédée Lamy!

           
Before the Central African anarchy, France remembers with bitterness of his bloody colonial adventure and terrible complex of Facoda. Indeed, on August 29, 1899, Commander Robillot of the Decornet company had run violently at Kouno against Muslim troops from another Muslim Oubangui-Chari named Rabah Fadl Allah (1845-1900), a vassal of the Mahdi of Sudan, Muhammad Ahmad ibn Abd Allah Al-Mahdi (1844-1885). On 21 and 22 March 1900, the troops of Commander François-Joseph-Amedée Lamy (whose name will be given to the capital of Chad, Fort-Lamy now N’Djaména), had been crushed to Kousseri (now Cameroon) by Muslim hordes of Rabah, despite the support of Sultan Gaourang's cavalry from Baguirmi. During the decisive battle of April 22, 1900, the commander Lamy was killed, his head and his right hand trenches and sent to the French admnistrator Emile Gentil.

The Cinderella of the Empire wakes!

         For France of Francois Hollande even without the necessary resources, it was necessary to intervene in Central Africa to prevent the repetition of colonial history, never ended. Even create an African coalition under the aegis of the United Nations. A Muslim power in Bangui is a Sword of Damocles on the edge of the Francophonie and of Christianity in Africa South of the Sahara (Congo, D.R.C., Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda ...) did not hesitate to send troops to the aid of French soldiers have threatened open Bangui. The episode of President Giscard Valery hunting elephant in N'Gbaka country with his cousin Bokassa followed by the Operation Barracuda had lived. The myth of the superiority of the white color had been replaced by the fear of Muslim genocide in the minds of anti-barakas face the atrocity of Seleka. That's the price of a bad decolonization pays dearly country of Abbot Barthelemy Boganda, whose motto was "Kwe Zo Zo" ("every human being is a person" or "a man as good as another").
        
The former Oubangui-Chari nicknamed "The Cinderella of the Empire" by Jean-Joël Brégeon, a former French administrator finally just woke up, but what will be the price of contempt long maintained by France against her?

dimanche 12 octobre 2014

Morocco: The Kingdom of Morocco, first exporter of cannabis in the world since 2002.

 
According to a report by the UN Office against Drugs and Crime (U.N.O.D.C.), presented in Vienna for the International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Drug TraffickingMorocco since 2002, the first "supplier" of cannabis in the world. Largest producer of cannabis in the world, Morocco is the first provider of this traditional drug, despite the country's efforts to eradicate illicit drug trafficking.

Primary source of cannabis resin.
 
         When seizures of cannabis resin, Morocco is the first country-source cited by drug traffickers, closely followed by Afghanistan.The Kingdom of Morocco has been designated as the main source of trafficking cannabis resin by seventeen different countries, including eleven countries in Western and Central Europe.
         "Most of the cannabis resin comes from Afghanistan and Morocco, although there is evidence of stabilization or even a decrease in production in these countries",
however, the report said. In Europe, for example, "the herbal cannabis seizures have increased, while seizures of cannabis resin ("hashish "mostly from Morocco) decreased. This may indicate that domestic cannabis herb production continues to replace the imported resin”.
         Morocco, with 47. 500 hectares of cannabis cultivation, still far ahead of Afghanistan (12. 000 hectares of cultivated areas) and Mexico (12. 000 hectares of crops and 13. 430 hectares eradicated).

Decline of production

         According to data provided by the Moroccan government to U.N.O.D.C., cannabis production, however, would mark a significant decline. This decrease in production is also accompanied by a decrease in seizures of hashish resin - a dry form of cannabis that can be converted into cannabis resin.
         "The Moroccan authorities have attributed the decline in seizures to increased law enforcement efforts to fight against cannabis cultivation in the country, and the fight against trafficking along the borders of Morocco",
the report said.

Spain, the hub of Moroccan cannabis.

         For countries where foreclosures are the most important, Spain, the main entry point into Europe of Moroccan cannabis resin, was at the top of the rankings. In 2011, the country accounted for 34% of global seizures. The quantities of cannabis resin seized in Spain have been decreasing for the third consecutive year.
         In a report of the International Narcotics Control Board (I.N.C.B.) released in March 2013, the U.N. .already confirmed the place of Europe and especially Spain as the first market of the Moroccan cannabis.
         «Large batches of illegal cannabis grown in Morocco that are destined for Europe is transported speedboats and other small non-commercial boats. Traffickers continue to deliver cannabis through the Spanish enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla and the Moroccan port of Tangier. Seizures of several tons of cannabis regularly take place",
the report said.

Increase in cocaine use.

         Morocco also become a transit country for the trafficking of cocaine to Europe. According to the I.N.C.B. "cocaine traffickers trying increasingly to smuggle cocaine into Europe via Morocco. Drugs from South America arrived in Morocco via SSA and the Sahel region".
         Worryingly for Moroccan authorities: cocaine arriving in Morocco does not just pass through. Some is also intended for local consumption, which continues to grow.
_______________________________________
*Article of Journalism on Line"JOL Press" based on the 2013 Report on drugs / United Nations Office against Drugs and Crime.

dimanche 5 octobre 2014

Belgium / R.D. Congo: Belgian colonization in the Congo causes A.I.D.S..

 
An evil that spreads terror!

         In 1981, T.K. was a close friend who was returning from the United States working for the Inga-Shaba power line as a pilot. He caught a strange illness that doctors of Clinic Ngaliema at Kinshasa could not identify the symptoms. Americans who employed him were then undergo a series of tests and samples that they sent to the United States. They tried in vain on all kinds of medications. His family at first thought to witchcraft before learning of the Americans, he was the victim of an immune syndrome called "A.I.D.S." impossible to cure. They placed him in a sealed transparent pastique Sas. Indeed, he emptied literally any substance daily. The hefty size of 1 m 86 for 86 Kgs, he died within three months, stunted weighing only 35 kg.
         A.I.D.S. was reduced (deliberately or accidentally) to its origins in Zaire (D.R.C.) by the United States where an awkward or intentional manipulation of H.I.V. had spread it to the gay scene !! The world was then entering the cycle of sexual absolute fear and anxiety paralyzing face an impossible syndrome to cure. Globalization had just started suddenly from below the belt!

The world's worst disaster of our time!

        
The A.I.D.S. pandemic began in Leopoldville (Kinshasa), the Belgian capital of Congo (D.R.C.), in the 20s, before spreading to the changing world, researchers have determined by reconstructing the path of infection responsible for 36 million deaths.
        
This international research team was able to reconstruct the genetic history of the H.I.V. retrovirus (human immunodeficiency virus) causes A.I.D.S., focusing on the strain of group M, the most common.
        
The results of this work appeared in the journal "Science" suggests that the common ancestor of H.I.V. is "very likely" appeared in Leopoldville (Kinshasa) to the 1920s.

Transmission V.I.H. from monkey to man.

         Virologists already knew that this retrovirus was transmitted from monkeys to humans at least thirteen times, but only one of these transmissions is responsible for human pandemic.
        
Only this specific transmission that led to the emergence of H.I.V.-1, the cause of the pandemic caused about 75 million infections to date, the majority in sub-Saharan Africa.
        
Analyses of the group of researchers from Oxford (U.K.) and Belgian universities of Leuven suggest that between the years 1920 and 1950, a combination of factors, including rapid urbanization, the construction of railways in the Democratic Republic of Congo (D.R.C.), then the Belgian Congo, as well as changes in the sex trade, has fostered the emergence and spread of A.I.D.S. from Kinshasa.
        
"For the first time, we analyzed all available genetic data using the latest techniques to statistically estimate the phylogeographic origin of the virus", says Dr. Oliver Pybus of Oxford Department of Zoology, one of the principal authors of the study.
"We can say with a high degree of certainty of where and when the pandemic side", he said.

Open Congo to civilization!: "The key role of the railroad."

         One of the factors analyzed suggests that the development of railways, particularly in the Belgian Congo, has played a key role in the development of the pandemic in its early stages by Léopoldville (Kinshasa) one of the best connected cities in all of Central Africa a hub.
        
"Information colonial records indicate that in the late 40s more than a million people passed through Leopoldville (Kinshasa) by train every year",  said Nuno Faria, from University of Oxford, also the a lead author.
        
"Our genetic data also tell us that the H.I.V. virus has spread rapidly across the Congo, an area equivalent to the Western Europe, moving with people by railways, by roads and by water", he says.
        
Thus, H.I.V. could reach Mbuji-Mayi and Elizabethville (Lubumbashi) in the far south and Stanleyville (Kisangani) in the north in the late 30s and early 50s.
        
These migrations have allowed the virus to establish the first secondary outbreaks in areas that had good communication networks with countries in southern and eastern Africa, according to these researchers.
        
"We believe that the changes in society that occurred at the time of Congo's independence in 1960 also likely that the virus could escape from small groups of people with HIV to infect larger populations before spread in the world", in the late 70's H.I.V. was first identified in 1981.
        
In addition to the development of transportation, changes in social attitudes, especially among sex workers, as well as greater access to syringes shared addicts, some of whom were infected, have dramatically raised the epidemic.
        
"Our research suggests that after the initial transmission of the virus from animals to humans through hunting and consumption of bushmeat, there was a brief window at the time of the Belgian Congo, which has enabled this particular strain of H.I.V. to emerge and spread", concludes Professor Pybus.
        
In the 60s, the system including rail, which allowed the virus to spread over large distances, had played its part and "the seeds were already sown the pandemic across Africa and beyond", he added.

The spread of H.I.V. throughout the world.

        
Born in the Congo Basin, the virus then traveled from one continent to another. According to Gilles Pialoux, author of "Aids 2.0" and head of the department of infectious and tropical diseases at Tenon Hospital in Paris, the virus was introduced into Haiti in 1966 and in North America in 1972, and finally in Europe in the late 1970s or early 1980s.
        
In 1981, the first description of a new syndrome of A.I.D.S. by Mike Gottlieb in the "Morbidity Mortality Weekly Report" had raised the very high incidence of the disease among Haitian immigrants in the United States.
        
In a study published in 2007, the American researcher Michael Worobey also offers the same path. His conclusion is unequivocal: arose in Africa, the virus has developed in Haiti between 1962 and 1970, then a change has emerged in the United States, Haiti conveyed from one person in 1969.

Responsibility of the United States in the spread of A.I.D.S.!

         The "cons-theory" of the origins of A.I.D.S. what is probably the largest audience is that of the oral polio vaccine Hilary Koprowski.          The journalist Edward Hooper suggests in 1999 that the introduction of H.I.V. into the human population is due to oral polio vaccine administered to approximately one million people by Dr. Hilary Koprowski between 1957 and 1960 in the former Belgian Congo. He said the first vaccines of this type were "produced using cell chimpanzees Camp Lindi infected with the AIDS virus from monkeys".
        
"The A.I.D.S. virus is so different in structure from any other virus that can not possibly have been formed by our Mother Nature", said meanwhile Dr. Robert Strecker. This American pathologist claims that A.I.D.S. is a man-made virus, and more specifically by the American government. According to Dr. Leonard Horowitz, a graduate of Harvard Public Health, Health Officers of the USA, have even spread pathogens via vaccination campaigns carried out in parallel in America and Africa, and with the complicity of the World Organisation health.
        
The international human rights lawyer, Boyd Graves, has meanwhile filed a complaint against the United States federal government for an apology from the government. He argues that the authorities have "manufactured" and "broadcast" the A.I.D.S. virus through a secret research project, the "US Special Virus program" from 1948 to 1978 The lawyer said: "We understand better why blacks account for 13% of the population and 50% of people affected by A.I.D.S.. "
        
According to other theories, the bacteriological weapon was inoculated during vaccination campaigns against homosexuals. Scientists say, and the epidemic broke out in Manhattan in 1978, following a campaign against hepatitis B performed on homosexuals infected with the A.I.D.S. vaccine.

Is it  the same with the Ebola Virus?