samedi 26 avril 2014

Democratic Republic of Congo: If my name was Joseph and if you were called Mary?

 
Christians names in the Democratic Republic of Congo have always had a special meaning  Is it because it is one of the oldest Christianized countries of Black Africa?
         Thus the names of Joseph and Mary have a special relationship with the ruling Democratic Republic of Congo. Four presidents who have ruled the country since independence in 1960, three bear the name of Joseph and Mary are their wives. Joseph Kasavubu, the first president (1960-1965) was married to Hortense Ngoma Masunda and assigned the name of Marie-Rose to her eldest daughter. Joseph Désiré Mobutu (1965-1997) was married to Marie-Antoinette Gbiatibua Yetene and the current president of D.R.C., Joseph Kabila (2001-) is married to Marie Olive Lembe-di-Sita.
         When Joseph Désiré Mobutu took off his Christian name to become Sese Seko Kuku
Ngbendu wa Zanga, he lost his wife Marie-Antoinette, who had formally objected to the philosophy of Authenticity and took refuge for a time near Cardinal Joseph Albert Malula. Congo became Zaire, like a drunken boat began its descent into hell. Its founding president was transformed into a demigod!

The attempt of other names to conquer  the power in the D.R.C.
.

         In 1960, Jean Bolikango, potential presidential candidate lost the power in front of Joseph Kasavubu, while Patrice Emery Lumumba, not only lost power but also life, replaced by a certain Joseph Iléo who had a happy political career.
         In 1964, Moise Tshombé, former secessionist Katanga, became the savior of the Congo resisted little face to Joseph Kasavubu despite the overwhelming support of the Belgians and the West. His successor as Prime Minister Evariste Kimba, was even hanged in May 1966 by Joseph Désiré Mobutu.
         If the name of Moses is emblematic in Katanga since Moses Tshombé, where another Moses Katumbi is a successful governor, it is not luck at the head of Congo
         In 1980, Etienne Tshisekedi tried in vain to create some internal opposition, but his name does not allow him to access to power at the head of Congo. Maybe he would leave to his colleague Joseph Ngalula, the  leadership of U.D.P.S. for the chance to win power. The latter was the first Congolese politician to pronounce at Luluabourg ( Kananga ) in 1959 , the word "Independence" which became a reality on June 30, 1960. In 2011, Tshisekedi Etienne  dreamed again in vain to hand power in front of Joseph Kabila.
         In 1997, when Laurent Kabila had conquered militarily the power, he renamed Zaire the Democratic Republic of Congo. Mobutu’s propagandist who had taken service with him, Dominique Sakombi Inongo flood Kinshasa with huge billboards that read: "Mzee Laurent Kabila, the man should have been in the Congo".
  His power was so  declining in the past, as four years later, his name was fatal as that of Patrice Lumumba him, 40 years before!
         In turmoil, another Laurent had almost failed to run the country, Archbishop Laurent Monsengwo. His fate was the Vatican as his compatriot Laurent Eketebi, the former teacher who had chase Mobutu from middle school of Mbandaka, became foreign minister and ambassador of Zaïre to the Vatican.

Democratic Republic of Congo should pay special devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary.

        
Before dying at the clinic Genolier in Switzerland at the age of 37, on October 22, 1977, Marie-Antoinette Mobutu, begged her husband to be buried in a crypt chapel called "Marie-La-Miséricorde" at Gbadolite. Before such an incongruous last will, the entourage of enlightened guide Zaire realized she sought and mercy of the Holy Virgin for his country was now comes the Devil !
         After his appearance at Kibeho on November 28, 1981 to  August 15, 1983, the Blessed Virgin Mary disguised as a simple peasant wished to cross the Zaire-Rwanda border from Gisenyi to announce the Zairian the terrible trials that awaited them after the genocide in Rwanda. Not only Zairian Customer asked her a tip for hervisa, but mostly he tried to rape her!
         It included both Congolese mortal sins that would put an end not only to the power of Mobutu. Very angry, she turned the country and finally withdrew her mercy chapel crypt of Gbadolite.
         During the genocide in Rwanda, wo million Hutu refugees crossed Gisenyi and invaded Congo, causing war, major disasters and thousands of lives with them. The region and the country were forever transformed into hospices.
         Mobutu Sese Seko was no longer the Christian Joseph Désiré Mobutu, despite the recovery of Catholic names in 1994 lost his power. Before going to die in Morocco in September 1997, he burned the remains of Marie-Antoinette Mobutu and former rwandese president Juvenal Habyarimana in May 1997. Chapel crypt Mary-The-Mercy was desecrated and destroyed, never to receive the body of its builder who may not even be buried in consecrated ground.
         Mass rape of women, limitless corruption, extreme violence and death became the lot of the Kivu region and neighboring regions!

Two women called "Mary" to save the Democratic Republic of Congo
!

         Despite her anger, in her infinite mercy, the Virgin Mary could not condemn the innocent to eternal punishment, as she remembered that she had intervened during the darkest hours of the Holocaust of Leopold and Congo Free State to through an English woman who bore the name of Mary.

Mary Henrietta Kingsley, self-taught ethnologist, born of rape and a mésalliance!

         A woman named Mary Kingsley (1862-1900), explorer and writer self, born of a mésalliance between Dr. Charles Kingsley and his servant Bailley Mary (married after being raped and made ​​pregnant), was born in Islington, England on October 13 1862. she discovers the truth of this unseemly marriage after the death of both his parents in 1892. During her unhappy youth, she finds consolation in reading the stories of explorers: Cameroon, Mungo Park, Savorgnan de Brazza, Du Challu, David Livingstone or Richard Burton ... the miseries of her childhood in Highgate enabled her to understand the plight of Africans.
         Single hardened and anti-feminist, she does not believe in God and religion indifferent in this century. Firther of clichés of her time on the Negroes and missionaries, she wrote: "Often, these Africans have an acute intelligence and a strong dose of common sense, and there really is nothing childish in their thinking".
In a letter to New Africa in 1900 , she did not hesitate to say : "The duty of England, is to protect African nationalism, not to destroy it".
         When her friend Rudyard Kipling speaks of the burden of the White man, she protests: “This is the burden of the Black man should be celebrated because this poor African is confronted with a bunch of morons, all their whims and for him as for the white man, these are worthless nonsense".

Her ideas inspired the " Congo Reform Association ."

         The Congo Reform Association founded on January 25, 1904 by Edmond Georges Morel De Ville (born in Paris in 1873 to a French father and an English mother) forced King Leopold II at the insistence of the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Lord William P.F. Landsdowne to publish on October 30, 1905, the report of the Committee Harris denouncing the atrocities committed in the Congo in the Official Journal of the Independent State of the Congo. The coup de grace which completed the Congo Free State came from acerbic articles of E.D. Morel, editor of " West Africa Mail " and in the Speaker under the revealing title of "The Congo Scandal ".  The evidence presented by his friend, the Irish consul of England in Boma, Roger Casement in the " Parliamentary Papers " were considered by the British government as "Cruelly convincing".
         Despite the publication of untruths and denied by the King of the Belgians, the Independent State was inevitably lost. Mary Kingsley’s theses saved the Congolese!

The Irish Mary Therese Winifred Robinson (née Bourke) , last chance of the Democratic Republic of Congo !

         First President of Ireland from December 3, 1990 to September 12, 1997, Mary Robinson, daughter of two doctors (like Mary Kingsley), born on May 21, 1944 at Balina (County Mayo) in Ireland, she has been driven by the desire to defend the rights of citizens and minorities in the world. Price, if necessary, for the sovereignty of States. Before becoming the first president of Ireland then very conservative, the lawyer specialist fundamental freedoms had condemned his own country by the European Court of Human Rights about the status of children born out of wedlock. In 1995, she proposed to bring the "human security" among the cardinal principles of the United Nations, the equal of national sovereignty.
         Mary Robinson can’t be hardly accused of pro-Rwandan naivety. At the head of Ireland from 1990 to 1997, she was certainly the first head of state to visit the country after the genocide. But soon after her appointment as High Commissioner of the United Nations for Human Rights (1997-2002), while Kigali was faced with a rebellion largely of Hutu genocide, she has attracted wrath of the Rwandan government for having made ​​jointly responsible for atrocities in progress.

Courageous and determined woman artisan of human rights !

         Appointed first High Commissioner of the United Nations Human Rights on September 12, 1997, by the Secretary General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan, with the approval of the General Assembly, after seven years at the helm of Ireland. Wife and mother of three children, she takes risks and initiatives that demands admiration (South Africa, Colombia, Somalia, Cambodia, China, Yugoslavia, Rwanda). In March 2013, she was chosen by the Secretary General of the United Nations Ban Ki -moon as special envoy to the region of the Great Lakes.
         She begins by forcing 11 African countries to sign a framework agreement in Addis Ababa from 24 February 2013 to restore peace in eastern D.R.C. and throughout the Great Lakes region. Facilitators before the United Nations and the African Union, the signatories of this document countries committed themselves in particular to stop supporting armed groups operating in neighboring countries. With the help of that which she bears the name, she is now a successful mission? Will she be the peacemaker Mary of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Great Lakes Region?

samedi 19 avril 2014

China: When death becomes an unattainable luxury!

 
Housing "death" in China: the cross and the banner.

        
With rapid urbanization, the price of building land climb everywhere. But what can not be seen in real estate agencies, this is the price of graves ... Yet !  
         At Gangzhou , the price per square meter falls climbs faster than desktop because land shortage to bury the dead with dignity. While government advise their citizens to enjoy the vast sea of waves to scatter the ashes of their loved ones.
         To encourage the timid who are wary of the big blue, the administration offers premium sounding species and stumbling families who are willing to get rid of the ashes of their loved ones with the waves : 1000 yuan (122 euros) in Guangzhou, 5000 yuan (612 euros) in Shaoxing says Xinhua.
         To encourage people to use the sea for the funeral, the Chinese authorities organized mini cruises all expenses paid The Washington Post adds: whole families leave tens bus, the ashes of their dead in a trailer for a maritime ceremony to throw flowers.
         The above may well be free in the big blue, the Chinese are so attached to the traditional setting tare weight of ash supposed to provide the rest of the soul. In large cities, the eternal repose feeds a juicy black market.

On April 4, the day of the traditional festival of Qing Ming!

          On  April 4, each year, all Chinese gather in cemeteries to clean the graves of their deceased relatives and ancestors. They burn offerings they intend: banknotes above all, Ipad and Iphone and other gadgets to ensure their blessing. Some spend fortunes as a sign of filial piety.
         In private cemeteries of Changping District in Beijing, the high-end plots often reach 1 million yuan (over 122,000 euros), The Global Times
wrote, but according to the law, burials solo or two places not exceed not a square.
         Shortly, the surface graves decline further. According to government statistics, by 2025 , 20 million Chinese will move into the beyond every year. They have the right to place an urn beneath the earth or have their ashes dissolved forever in the waves of a sea, somewhere in China.

dimanche 13 avril 2014

France/Libya: Muammar Gaddafi or Albert Preziosi Jr., ultimately matter?

 
Gaddafi: A product of the war that ended by the war!

         Ousted in an unheard of violence and killed on October 20, 2011 in Sirte, as was the Duce Mussolini on April 26, 1945 (then hung upside down with his mistress Clara Petacci on Piazzale Loreto in Milan), the Libyan dictator could very well not to be who he claimed to be, that does not change his character or his behavior, let alone his adventurous life !
         Malicious persistent rumor was in the 70s on the origin of the one whose completed name is
Mouammar Bin Mohammed Bin Abdessalam Bin Humaïd Bin Aboumeniar Bin du Naïl Al Fohsi Al Kadhafi”, officially son of a certain Abu Minyar and Aisha: he was simply the natural son of Albert Preziosi.
         Albert Preziosi was a Corsican pilot who joined London on 17 June 1940 to enlist in the Free French Air Force (F.A.F.L.). The lieutenant is assigned to the Middle East, the hunting group number 1 "Alsace", then in the hunting group number 3 "Normandie". Assigned to the Middle East, his plane crashed in 1942 in Libyan desert, exactly in the region of Fezzan, that's where Gaddafi was born.
         According to former members of his group, the soldier Preziosi would then disappeared for a month, during which he met a young woman. This Eastern idyll versions diverge. According to Lorillon Pierre, one of the last survivors of the squadron Normandie-Niemen
"Albert was collected by a Libyan tribe, then cared for by a young noble woman with whom he had a child ".
          François Tulasne, son of the commander Tulasne, one of the two founders of the Normandie-Niemen, evokes a fun episode of "Libyan Princess". "For my father, Preziosi was like a son latter, which yet had a disability in the neck, was a good soldier . And apparently a seducer".
         The romance with the Bedouin, gave birth on June 7, 1942 to a son named Muammar Gaddafi promised to a destiny beyond common because his name Muammar means "Who God gives long life!"
.

The true progenitor of the Libyan dictator ?

         Albert Preziosi, son of Constable was born on July 25, 1915 at Vezzani (321 inhabitants in 2011), a village in Corsica, where a golden plaque pays tribute to the memory of the French aviator. Seeing photos of the adult Gaddafi, the Vezzanais were impressed by the striking resemblance between the Libyan leader and the hero killing in action in Russia at Karatchev on July 28, 1943. The gold plate honoring Airman corse on the front of communal House Vezzani date of 2003.
         Albert Preziosi leaves his village in 1930. In 1935, he was part of the first graduating class of the School of the air Salon-de-Provence. Did he never returned ! Above the mayor's office is a framed portrait of the captain of the Air Force wearing his aviator cap. Annie Genasci, then town clerk, loved the photo of this beautiful man and liked to believe the unbelievable story that accompanies her destiny.
         "We have no evidence of this relationship (with Gaddafi), but no evidence either contradicts it,"
says Jean-Pierre Pagni (then Mayor of Vezzani). Designating the former police station, a high stone house where small Preziosi was born. "And then there was the likeness ..." noted Annie.

What the French said about this filiation Preziosi - Gaddafi ?

         This story, members of the Normandie-Niemen liked to tell the forehead, even embellish. Libyan Princess for some, Jewish Palestinian nurse for others ... all meet on one point: a child was born of this trip in the desert.
         Philippe Beaudoin, retired second office air force, got wind of a discussion between the Commander Joseph Pouliquen, co-founder of the Normandy-Niemen, and Albert Preziosi. The latter would have made ​​the following confession to his superior: "You know, I had a child in Libya if something happens to me in maneuvers, do send him this letter. ".
         A few weeks later, airman Preziosi dies on a flight on the Russian front . "Subsequently, no one has had this letter in the hands",  says Philippe Beaudoin, for which the theory of the authorship of Gaddafi is "plausible". In 1988, Joseph Pouliquen dies and carries the letter in his grave.
         The descendants of Albert Preziosi, them, take this story with a grain of salt . "Every time we said,"
So you're the Gaddafi family?, " my arms fall " irritated François Preziosi, son of a cousin of Albert, who works at the maintenance of the memory of his grandfather. This former of Algeria recognizes still have led his small survey by contacting an "old acquaintance" which was during the Second World War in Libya for "Indigenous Affairs"  In vain. In the army, it is not fashionable to communicate on privacy. The cousin Preziosi also prefer his focuses more on the heroism of Albert at this embarrassing descent. He does not forget to mention just a few miles of Vezzani, Solenzara airbase is named after Preziosi. And can not imagine that one day she could be renamed "Gaddafi"!
 
Corsica Gaddafi : his relations with Europeans, Arabs and Blacks !

         Despite his character "Corsaire" wacky, Gaddafi loved France, the country of his presumed progenitor, he treated the Italians with disdain but consumed Italian dishes thoroughly. He distrusted the English to whom he owes his military training yet. He despised the Arabs and ridiculed when he had the chance. They made ​​him well. He said he is Muslim without understanding the Quran. Whenever I heard mention the Koran, I wondered what the Koran, he drew his suras or verses. In fact, he interpreted his way to accommodate his speech. Also, the fatwa of Sheikh Youssef Al- Qaradawi stated that "Kafir Murtadd Mustahlil or Apostate"
on February 21, 2011, while N.A.T.O. bombed Libya was contested by any Muslim in the world.
         He was patronizing to Black Africans, he dreamed of converting by the sword or by the corruption (and a complex vis-à-vis of Black Americans especially those who challenged the current administration). He preferred the Eastern Europeans, who gave him a beautiful woman Sofia (aka Safia) and his beautiful offspring.
         As with any natural child, the life of Muammar Gaddafi Preziosi has been a life of adventure often bloody as the incomparable another Corsian, born better and more intelligent, remained in French history : Napoleon Bonaparte.
         Phenomena in power like him, Africa abounds: Idi Amin, Jean- Bedel Bokassa, Hastings Kamuzu Banda, Samuel Doe, etc.. All share one thing in common :  they were "
Ambiguous birth and unhappy childhood" that lead them to exercise tyranny, trying to be loved by the whole world or.... avenge their ambiguous birth and multiple frustrations of childhood* !
------------------------------------------
*For More Reading about Tyrants: Charmet Véronique,
L’enfance des dictateurs (Childhood of dictators), Editions Prisma, Paris, 2013.

lundi 7 avril 2014

Rwanda / France: A French genocide in Rwanda in 1994*.

 
The unspeakable guiltiness ... they kissed the devil on the mouth!

         For twenty years to this day, Rwanda was devastated by genocide that killed more than a million deaths mostly Tutsi. Books, movies and irrefutable evidence have shown the involvement and culpability of France in the preparation and execution of the genocide. Why France who wants to be champion of human rights is it bent on denying the obvious?
         When the Roman Catholic Church by the voice of Pope Francis finally came to ask forgiveness for the participation of some of its priets and bishops, would it not time for France to do its mea culpa?
         It would grow up instead of hiding behind a ridiculous and false reason of state which frustrates both populations (Rwandan and French) who dream of peace, harmony and sincere friendship! As ... the United Nations, the United States and Belgium and the rest of the world!

Testimony of a French officer in charge of “Operation Turquoise!”

         For the first time since 1994, Operation Turquoise in Rwanda sheds a new light through the testimony of a French officer in the Army. According to him, officially posted by Paris "humanitarian" goal merges with another , much less blameless : that slow or stop the military advance of the Rwandan Patriotic Front (R.P.F.), while leaving the genocidal government forces.

We received orders to prepare a raid on the Rwandan capital, Kigali.

         Launched on June 22, 1994, the French Operation Turquoise would initially aimed to make the shot against the Rwandan Patriotic Front (R.P.F.), the rebel - mostly Tutsi - who fought against the Hutu government forces causing the genocide. This is not President Paul Kagame (President of Rwanda) said that, but an old French officer, Knight of the Legion of Honor and decorated of  military title operations. In a long interview with "Jeune Afrique", William Ancel, 48 years, the captain time to 68th Regiment of Artillery Africa evokes bluntly the gap between the official French version, and it lived there twenty years in the hills of Rwanda. If he and his comrades were actually conducted from early July 1994 protection missions and mining in favor of Tutsi survivors, they had previously, he received an order to stop the advance of R.P.F. when the military victory of the latter became inexorable.

What was your mission when joining Operation Turquoise?

         The initial order, says William Ancel, I received around 24 June 1994, was very clear: preparing a raid on the Rwandan capital, Kigali, then passed almost entirely under the control of the R.P.F.. The specialty of my unit was guiding air strikes (Tactical Air Control Party – T.A.C.P. ) . Infiltrated near the target to guide the fighters, our role was to identify a corridor to allow troops to seize their objective before anyone had time to react. No need to have done Saint-Cyr to understand that when trying to retake the capital of a country at war passed into the hands of a rebellion is to replace the official authorities.

No French army raid on Kigali has not yet occurred at the time ...

         Confirmation of the mission order never arrived. Maybe it was related to logistical problems we encountered, our equipment has been delivered late to Goma (D.R.C.). On the other hand I felt a flutter in the hierarchy. Then, between 29 June and 1 July, we received an order that replaced the first. We had to stop by force the R.P.F. advance east of Nyungwe Forest , in the south-western Rwanda. The next morning at dawn, we took off in the helicopter Super Puma to go trigger air strikes on columns of the R.P.F.. Most of the unit had already left yesterday by road. But when the helicopters took off from the Bukavu airport, we received an other order. The officer in charge of operations told us that an agreement had been reached with the R.P.F.. Now we must protect a "safe humanitarian zone" ( ZHS )
whose rebellion of Paul Kagame had agreed that temporarily escapes its control. It is at this point that the nature of our mission has changed to become humanitarian.
         Until then, it was clear that they were fighting the R.P.F.. French soldiers have saved many thousands of lives (Hutu or Tutsi ? –sic)

What has been the humanitarian mission?

         We made ​​us around Cyangugu, south of Lake Kivu. The company commander decided to set up our camp above Nyarushishi camp, where thousands of refugees were Tutsis and moderate Hutus. He had been alerted by the chief medical officer of the camp, a Swiss working for the International Committee of the Red Cross (I.C.R.C.), the risk of a massive attack by the Interahamwe militia. This dimension of Turquoise must not be forgotten: even if the orders we received were ambiguous, the French soldiers have saved many thousands of lives. For me, each of them was a victory.

What were your relations with government forces who had orchestrated the genocide?

         As soon as we crossed the border between the former Zaire (now D.R.C.) and Rwanda, we found that Rwandan soldiers were dismayed realizing that French soldiers would not remount the interim government originally of the genocide. They looked at us with obvious reluctance and anxiety. Conversely, when refugees Nyarushishi realized that we really had come to protect them, they greeted us with shouts and songs of joy.
         As a specialist in air strikes and special missions, when the company moved to protect the camp Nyarushishi was seconded me to Colonel Hoggard, of the Foreign Legion, and I became responsible for extractions. For a month, with legionaries, whenever we receive information on people at risk in the safe humanitarian zone, I was responsible for conducting rescue operations. I have been instructed to load containers of weapons on these trucks, which were then taken to Zaire to give to Rwandan government forces.

We know that the French army has also shown a certain complacency in the face of genocidal forces fleeing to Zaire ...

        
During this period, we confiscated tens of thousands of small arms to the Hutus who crossed the border, mostly pistols, assault rifles and grenades. All these weapons were stored in shipping containers on the basis of the Foreign Legion at the airport in Cyangugu. Mid-July, we saw a column of civilians arriving trucks and I have been instructed to load containers of arms on these trucks, which were then taken to Zaire to give to Rwandan government forces. It was even suggested me to hold journalists during this time to prevent them realizing it. When I told him my disapproval, the commander of the Legion told me that the staff had considered it necessary to show the Rwandan army that we did not become her enemies, so that it does not turn against us. France has even paid their balance to Rwandan soldiers.

So you confirm that France has reset the Rwandan army ex-Forces in exile while they came to supervise the genocide of Tutsis?

         By delivering tens of thousands of weapons, we have transformed the refugee camps in Zaire military base. It was obvious that Paul Kagame would not tolerate, after taking power, an army position of the genocidal regime moved to the other side of Lake Kivu. This decision played an important role in what would happen two years later in eastern Congo.

What do you think the official French version Operation Turquoise?

         Personally, I only report what I experienced at the time. If it does not fit with their version, it's a problem. They built a mythical story of Operation Turquoise, which does not correspond to reality. Or if you want to avoid this happening again, we must put the cards on the table, not hidden under the carpet.
-------------------------------------------------- -
 * Jeune Afrique : Interview by Mehdi Ba with William Ancel : " The mythical story of Operation Turquoise does not match the reality”
, published on April 7, 2014.
*Mehdi Ba, Rwanda ,
Un génocide français (Rwanda: a French Genocide), L’Esprit Frappeur, 1997.
-Jean-Pierre Chrétien, Jean-Paul Gouteux et alii,
Un génocide, secret d’état : La France et le Rwanda 1990-1997 (Sate’s secret genocide: France and Rwanda 1990-1997), L’Esprit Frappeur, 2009.

mercredi 2 avril 2014

Forgotten Africans heroes and the medical exploits of the heart .



Dr Daniel Hale Williams, and the first open-heart surgery.

         Born on January 18, 1856 at Hollidaysburg in Pennsylvania, Williams was admitted to the Chicago Medical College (now the Nortwestern) after his training period in the clinic of Dr. Henry Palmer, renowned surgeon at Janesville. He opened his private clinic upon his graduation in 1883, becoming the first black surgeon in Illinois. And in 1893, he left his mark, when a dare surgery operation ever done before, drawing on the work of the French doctor Louis Pasteur and the British Dr Joseph Lister on antisepsis and asepsis. To save James Comish, a young stabbed in the chest during a brawl, Dr. Williams opened the chest of the patient, sews the pericardium and the heart suture. First open heart surgery has been well practiced. "Sewed Up His Heart", as the newspaper Chicago Daily Inter-Ocean. James Cornish does not fare too badly, since he will live up to 50 years. As Dr Williams sees after his feat, many physicians join the ranks of students who attended his surgery.

First Black chief of surgeon in Washington.


         First Black to hold the position of chief surgeon at Freedman's Hospital in Washington DC, Dr. Williams founded in 1891, with the support of whites and other Blacks to his cause, the first multiracial hospital in Chicago: The Provident hosipital, which allows him to accommodate quotas of Black girls wishing to conduct internships nurses. Only Black member of the College of Surgeons in 1913, he founded the National Medical Association, of which, he became vice- president until 1925. He did not forget his humble origins and less actively involved in social work. He was also very influential member of the Equal Rights League. He is considered as a leading authority in the field of science. Philanthropist, he bequeathed to his death on August 4, 1931, his library at Mercy Hospital of Philadelphia and money to various institutions, such as Y.W.C.A,, Meharry and Howard Medical Schools, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (N.A.A.C.P. ) founded by the University panaficanist African-American W.E.B. Du Bois in 1909, who lived his last years and died on August 27, 1963 at Accra (Ghana).

A Black electronics invented the pacemaker

         If today many people can breathe properly, it is because they wear a small electronic gem in their chest: the regulator pacemaker "artificial heart pacemaker
", but most of these carriers do not know that this device was invented by the African-American Otis Frank Boykin. Not even the first carrier of the pacemaker, the Swedish Arne Larsson (1915-2001), the first carrier in his chest of the machine from October 8, 1958 , implanted by Dr. Ake Senning, head of the department of surgery at the University Hospital of Zürich in Switerland.

 Otis Frank Boykin, the black inventor of the Heart Pacemaker.

         Otis Frank Boykin, born on August 29, 1920 in Dallas, Texas. His mother Sarah is a maid and his father Walter, a carpenter, became pastor. Otis graduated from Booker T. Washington High School in Dallas in 1938. He completed his university studies at Fisk University with a scholarship then a salary of an assistant of Laboratory at the Technological Institute of Illinois. But for unknown reasons, he does not get his degree in electronic engineering. He was hired as assistant nevertheless by Dr. Hal F. Fruth, engineer and inventor who had noticed his intelligence. He created more than twenty-five electronic inventions including: electrical resistance for computer, radio and television and especially a must for all guided missiles electronic device.

The fatal fate of tinkerers heart,

         He also develops the control unit for the heart he calls "Artificial heart pacemaker", essentially to regularize the heart beat through electrical impulses. The poor Boykin unfortunately succumb to an acute heart attack at age 62 on March 13, 1982. No one alongside him to place his pacemaker, which had saved Arne Senning in 1958.
By a curious stroke of fate, Dr Christiaan Neethling Barnard, Afrikaner was also heart attack victim, made ​​famous in the world by his Heart Transplant luminary, on which he published over 30 books.

Barnard Christiaan Neethling, the african legend of the human heart transplant

         Born on November 8, 1922 in Beaufort, West Cape to a pastor of the Dutch Reformed Church and a mother Afrikaner Puritan. He studied medicine at the University of Cape Town. Doctor in Medicine and Surgery in 1946, he was hired at the hospital Groote Schurr. In 1955, he specializes in cardiology with Professor Harding Wangensteen at the University of Minneapolis in the United States. This is where he made his first heart operation that ends with the death of the patient. In 1958, he returned to South Africa and work with other researchers in immunology and cardiac transplantation.
         On December 3, 1967, he performed the first heart transplant in History on Louis Washkansky (55) at Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town. The operation was a success but the patient died eighteen days later as a result of a lung infection.
         On January 2, 1968, he tried a new heart transplant anti-rejection treatment with streamlined to avoid postoperative infection. It is a success. Transplant live eighteen months. Barnard became a superstar of Medicine received by the highest international personalities.

Promoted by the Apartheid government of South Africa

         The apartheid government of South Africa considers very democratic advantage of his fame to promote its image in the world. In 1974, he tries to put a second heart bypass in a patient's chest. In 1978, he created a new feat by transplanting the heart of a baboon into the chest of a man. Naturalized Greek in 1991, he has subsequently to the Cellular Therapy Clinic "La Prairie" in Montreux-Clarens (Switzerland).
         We do not therefore expect more talk about him in Who's Who multiplying the amorous adventures. On September 2, 2001, by a curious twist of fate, that the world press brocarda once as "the surgeon with golden fingers" or  "the legend of the human heart transplant" is overcome by an acute heart attack in a hotel at Cyprus.
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-They Shaped Our Century: The Most Influential South Africans of the Twentiety Century. Human & Rousseau. 1999.
-Yves Antoine, Inventeurs et savants noirs, L’Harmattan, Paris, 2012.
-Kanyarwunga I.N. Jean, Biographical Dictionary of Africans (French version) online www. NENA. Sen.