jeudi 28 novembre 2013

United States of America/Pakistan: The posthumous Osama bin Laden revenge!

 
Pakistani doctor who helped the C.I.A. in 2011 to find Osama bin Laden is charged with murder.
On 24 November 2013, Dr Shakeel Afridi is accused by Mrs Gula Naseeb of District of Khyber in the tribal areas of north-west stronghold of Islamists, to have killed his son Sulaiman in 2007. The Surgeon is charged with murder and fraud, his lawyer confirmed Samiullah Afridi. The doctor, a graduate of the University of Peshawar is also accused of fraud, according to the indictment because he is not a surgeon and therefore would not have surgery.

Doctor and secret agent.


         Dr. Afridi had been recruited by the C.I.A. to conduct a fake vaccination campaign against hepatitis B in the town of Abbottabad, where Oussama bin Laden lived, hoping to collect D.N.A. that would identify him. However, he did not manage to gain access to the Bin Laden family. According to the complainant, the doctor operated three times her son for appendicitis, and he died after the third operation.
Dr. Shakeel Afridi was arrested after the U.S. raid that killed Osama Bin Laden on May 2, 2011. He had been convicted of treason for alleged links with the Islamist group Lashkar-e-Islam. He was sentenced to 33 years of prison in May 2012, but the sentence was suspended in August 2013.

Hero for Americans, Traitor to the Pakistanis.


         The raid had been denounced by Pakistan as a violation of its sovereignty and for a while had poisoned relations with the United States.
Remember, Bin Laden, born of 10 March 1957 at Riyadh in Saudi Arabia, the spiritual founder and leader of Al-Qaeda jihadist network claimed responsibility for the deadly attacks of 11 September 2001 in the United States including the World Trade Center in New York, which did 2,973 victims (19 hijackers) and 6,291 wounded.
Osama bin Laden had been living in hiding with his family in the neighborhood of Bilal Town at Abbottabad in Pakistan.

lundi 25 novembre 2013

Egypt: Welcome back home my Pharaoh!

 
An exile for living, a single trick for the eternity.
 
After 132 years of exile in North America, the mummy of Ramsès I, Ramessu Menpehty  Ra, was transferred to Egypt for free. He was thus brought on October 26, 2003 in Cairo in a Plexiglas coffin covered with the Egyptian flag. He was greeted by a Military Band. Schoolchildren, dressed in pharaonic costumes, then sang a song in praise of Egyptian history: "We are the sons of the Nile. Welcome Ramses, the builder of esteemed Egypt".
         Exhibited at the Egyptian National Museum in Cairo, the mummy was then transferred to Luxor Temple (south).
         "The night of the reception there was a powerful storm, with thunder and lightning and hail; a tornado just missed us. It was a very unusual storm for Atlanta. I think it was Rameses, letting us know that he's happy to be going home." occurs Gayle Gibson, an Egyptologist at the Royal Ontario Museum in Canada, who has studied the Niagara mummies for years.

Who was Ramses I, Ramessu Menpehty Ra?

         Founder of the nineteenth dynasty. He is the son of Seti, the commander of egyptian troops  and a singer named Tia Ra. He succeeded him in 1295 B.C.. His first wife is the queen Satre, mother of his heir Seti I. His name is Ramessu (Ra has given birth), his coronation name is Menpehtyrê (Stable is the power of Ra). He moved his capital to Memphis to escape the influence of the priests of Thebes. His reign lasted exactly one year and four months. He did not have time to make monuments except the decoration of the temple of Amun at Karnak and the building of a monument to Buhen. At his death in 1294 B.C., the throne returns to his son Seti I Meriamon Menpehti Re. His tomb in the Valley of the Kings is also unfinished.

Only one year and four months of reign, I will live in America!

         His true story is rather posthumously. His mummy was discovered in 1881 at Deir el-Bahari in Luxor, was stolen with other royal mummies and effects in 1891 by the family of Abdel Rassoul Qurna. The mummy of Ramses I was so purchased by the Museum of Arts in Niagara Falls in the United States and bought 2 million U.S. dollars by the Michael Carlos Museum in Atlanta (Georgia), where he stayed for three years. He was precisely identified by the German Egyptologist Egberscht.
__________________________________________

From Jean I.N. KANYARWUNGA, Biographical Dictionary of Africans, NENA, 2013.

jeudi 21 novembre 2013

South Africa:Solomon Plaatje Sekisho, an intellectual and a visionary nationalist in battle*.

 

Intellectual, journalist, linguist, politician, translator and writer.

         Born on October 9, 1876 in the farm Doornfontein near Boshof (Orange Free State). He completed his primary and secondary education at the Lutheran missionary school Pniel on the banks of the Vaal River (1884-1890). From 1891 to 1893, he taught at the school Pniel. In 1894, he worked as a postman in Kimberley. During his spare time, he learned foreign languages ​​(Dutch, French, German, Sotho, Zulu and Xhosa). In 1898, he moved to Mafeking, works as an interpreter at the Court of Mafeking and is used as a staff interpreter at the service of the British government during the war anglo-boer, siege of Mafeking (16 October 1899-17 May 1900). From 1901 to 1908, he founded and directed two newspapers "Koranta ea Becoana (The Bechuana Gazette)" and "Tsala ea Becoana (Friends of the People)", published in English and Setswana. On 8 January 1912, he was elected the first Secretary General of the South African Native National Congress (S.A.N.N.C.) which became in 1923, the African National Congress-A.N.C., whose general president is the Reverend John Langabalele Dube and General Treasurer, Pixley ka Isaka Seme. The S.A.N.N.C. publishes the newspaper "The Friend of the People ". In 1914, Sol Plaatje is part of the black delegation which protests in London against the Land Act of 1913, which remains of their native land in South Africans. In 1919, he attended the Conference of Versailles (France), which puts an end to the First World War. 

The first to proudly sing "Nkosi Sikelel'iAfrika", the South African anthem.

         He took the opportunity to attend the first Pan-African Congress held in Paris by W.E.B. Du Bois, with the help of M.P. Franco-Senegalese Blaise Diagne*. From Paris, he flew to Canada and to the United States. On October 16, 1923, he was the first South African to sing and save the future African national anthem "Nkosi Sikelel'iAfrika" accompanied on the piano by Sylvia Colenso. Back in South Africa in 1929, he received a house at 32 rue des Anges in the residential area of Malay Camp, offered by the black community of Kimberley for services rendered. The house was declared a national monument in 1992. In 1930, he began serving the people of Kimberley and protested once more against the law on the "Pass". He died in Johannesburg on June 19, 1932. 

 Posthumous honors for an outstanding writer...

         He received a grand funeral with unanimous tribute of more than 1,000 inhabitants from all races in Kimberley. His tomb in West End Cimetery, Kimberley was declared a national monument and became a place of pilgrimage since 1997. In 1998, an honorary doctorate was posthumously conferred to him by the University of the North-West with several of his descendants present. In 2000, the African National Congress initiated the Sol Plaatje Award, one of a number of annual achievement awards. January 9, 2010, a statue in his effigy was inaugurated in Kimberley by President Jacob Zuma. The Sol Plaatje Municipality, which includes the city of Kimberley is named after him, as is the Sol Plaatje University in that city, due to open its doors in 2014. Brian William devoted a biography entitled: Sol Plaatje South African Nationalist 1876-1932, London, Heinemann, 1984
His bibliography includes:
-The Boer war diary of Sol T. Plaatje: an African at Mafeking, Macmillan, London, 1901.-The Essential Interpreter (essay), 1909.
-Native life in South Africa
: Before and Since the European War and the Boer Rebellion, P.S. King & Son, London, 1916.
-Sechuana proverbs with Literal Translations and Their Equivalents Europeans,
Kegan Paul, Trench, London, 1916.
-Sechuana Phonetic Reader
, University of London, London, 1916.
-The Mote and the Beam,
Young's Book Exchange, New York, 1920.
-Mhudi: An Epic of South African Native Life a Hundred Years Ago,
Lovedale Press, Lovedale, 1930.
-The Siege of Mafeking,
1984.
-Mafeking Diary, a Black Man's View of a White Man's War,
J. Comaroff, South Books Publishers, Johannesburg, 1989.
---------------------------------------------------- 
*Jean I.N. KANYARWUNGA: Dictionnaire biographique des Africains (Biographical dictionnary of Africans), Nouvelles Editions Nunériques Africaines (N.E.N.A.), 2013. French Edition. 

mardi 19 novembre 2013

Egypt/Tunisia: The African who invented the first pen with tank.

 
Al-Qâhiratu "The Victorious" or Cairo and the pen integrated tank!

         His name means nothing to you and you retain the sins of the few, because it is very long and complicated. Yet his invention has facilitated writing you in many ways. The oldest one know how painful it was to dip the pen in ink to write a letter. And most importantly, as ink stains to dirty our clothes! Especially when a prince had to sign a formal document to the audience of other princes, dressed in his finest attire! What horror, the task of ink on his jacket!
In addition, he built the city of
al Qâhira "The Victorious", nicknamed  “the city of a thousand minarets”, wearing today the name of Cairo, capital of Egypt, the largest city in Africa and the Middle East.. It is also called  Umm al-Dunya, meaning "The mother of the world" with a population of 6,76 million spread over 453 sqaure kilometers (with an additional 10 million inhabitants just outside the city).

Al-Mu’izz li-Din-Allah Ma’add Abu Tamim Ibn Ismaël al-Mansur (932-975).

         Born in Mahdia on the coast of Ifriqya (Tunisia) in 932. His name means "One who strengthens the religion of God". Caliph of the Shiite Fatimid dynasty ascended to the throne in 953, he established his dominance over the central Maghreb and undertakes jihad against Byzantium, Crete and Sicily. In 969, the army of general Jawhar conquered Egypt in the name and founded
the city of al-Qāhiratu « The Vanquisher » (Cairo) in 969 as the new capital of the Fāimid caliphate in Egypt. In 973, he went to Cairo, to lead from the new capital. Al-Muʻizz was renowned for his tolerance of other religions, and was popular among his Jewish and Christian subjects. He is also credited for having commissioned the invention of the first fountain pen. In 953, al-Muizz demanded a pen which would not stain his hands or clothes, and was provided with a pen which held ink in a tank. At his death in 975, his empire extends from Mecca and Medina to Syria and Byzantium through North Africa and Egypt. Later Coptic sources would further assert that this miracle led al-Muizz to convert to Christanity, and that he was baptized at the church of Saint Mercurius in Cairo in a baptismal font that continues to exist to this day, and which is known today as the Sultan's Baptistry.

samedi 16 novembre 2013

D.R. of Congo: The Fabulous Destiny of Paul Panda Farnana*, first Congolese nationalist!*

 Born at Banana, the first station of the Congo Free State.

Son of the chief medalist Fernando Luizi Nzemba born near the port of Banana in 1888. He was baptized and educated the school colony Boma. In 1898, he was hired as a boy in the officer Eugene Derscheid. In the rest of the Belgian captain of the Police Force, Eugene Derscheid, he arrives in Brussels on April 25, 1900, where he enrolled at the Ateneo François Rabelais at Ixelles (Brussels). After the death of Captain E. Derscheid, Panda Farnana is adopted by her sister Louise Derscheid "in memory of the care he lavished on his brother's unfortunate". In October 1904, he passed the examination for admission to the School of Horticulture and Agriculture at Vilvoorde (Brabant), where he earned a degree in agronomy and a certificate of competency in tropical crops with "distinction" on 7 September 1907. He continued his training at the School of Tropical Agriculture in Nogent-sur-Marne in France. He completed his education with a diploma at the Academy commercial and consular of Mons (Belgium). After graduation, he was hired as "head of the third class cultures" in the Ministry of Colonies in Brussels. On June 1, 1909, he returned to Boma and was assigned to Botanical Garden near Eala, Coquilhatville as trainer agronomists and indigenous growers. On 12 July 1911, he received in Brussels the Colonial Office Medal of Merit "Star Service " which then rewarded the first term of a colonial official mandate. Returned to Congo December 16, 1911, he worked in several administrative departments before being appointed director of the Agricultural Station in Leopoldville Kalamu on December 22, 1913. After many difficulties with his superiors who probably can not bear to see a native occupy as high responsibilities, it turns off and goes to Belgium January 22, 1914. 

First university and first veteran of the Great War

From the beginning of the First World War, he is enrolled in the Volunteer Corps with two other Congolese compatriots Joseph Adipanga and Kudjabo. Taken prisoner by the Germans on August 25, 1914 in Namur, he remains until 11 November 1918. On April 10, 1919, he received a layoff. With his former colonial civil servant pension and veteran, he moved to Belgium, where he founded in November 1919, "the Congolese Union: a society and moral and intellectual development of the Congolese race" on the model the "National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People" of the African American professor William Edward Burghardt Du Bois* (1868-1963). Bringing together the dozen Congolese living in Belgium, this non-profit association which demanded the abolition of forced labor, the rapid improvement of the intellectual level of the Congolese, their participation in the management of public affairs and elections to persons to sit on the General Council on Legislation (an organization to create the Belgian Congo) receives from the Liberal Minister of Colonies, Louis Franck and the support of the Minister of Justice, the Socialist Emile Vandelvelde. Having participated in the first Pan-African Congress in Paris in February 1919, organized by Professor W.E.B. Du Bois. He took an active part in the Colonial National Congress held in Brussels from 18 to 20 December 1920, where he met the first Congolese priest, then secretary of the apostolic vicar of Upper Congo, Father Stefano Kaozi* with whom he established friendly relations. Au second Pan-African Congress in Brussels (1921), organized by the Senegalese deputy to the French National Assembly, Blaise Diagne* with the support of Council of French government, President Georges Clemenceau, who claimed that "the natives of Africa have the same rights as Whites", he was elected member of the board alongside W.E.B. Du Bois, the African American Jessie Fauset and the Belgian P. Otlet. 

 The utopian Congolese and his chimera.

On a practical level, his association was confined to the commemoration of the taking Tabora (Tanzania) by the Public Force on September 16, 1916 and gave the Belgian colonial administration to erect in Leopoldville on July 11, 1927 a memorial monument to the memory Congolese combatants. He finally returned to his native village, where he built a chapel and a school for black, that he called St. Paul. On 12 May 1930, he suddenly died in Mzemba probably shot down by grief and bitterness of being misunderstood. On 18 July 1930, the Congolese Union organized a funeral for him at Cambre which took part a large audience. The Belgian colonial press did little spared and demands were minimized by the colonial administration. His activity remained unknown to the Belgian Congo, where the Governor General A. Tilkens was signed in June 1930, a circular, reminiscent of his predecessor Eugene Fuchs of June 13, 1913, formally prohibiting Belgian colonial officials to bring Blacks with them in Belgium. The agro-forestry engineer Paul Panda Farnana can be logically considered the first university and especially the first nationalist Congolese (D.R.C.).
 ____________________________________
 *Jean I.N. Kanyarwunga, Dictionnaire biographique des Africains (Biographical Dictionnary of Africans), N.E.N.A., Dakar, 2013. French Digital Edition.

mercredi 13 novembre 2013

Zimbabwe: "Breakfast with Mugabe" the Shakespearean tragedy of Africa

 
Like King Lear or Frankenstein, Robert Mugabe victory in a tragedy at New York.

         He is the oldest African head of state (89), after the departure of Abdoulaye Wade of Senegal in 2012. He won every presidential election in Zimbabwe, despite the economic sanctions that have rolled his country. We say sick, but never enough to die and relinquish power. Neighboring younger heads of states mysteriously fall like flies, when they reach or cross the sixties.
         His predecessor Sodindo Canaan Banana, a Methodist pastor became civilized manners when he died, the laughingstock of the Conservative Africa. Accused of sodomy in his bodyguards by his Zimbabwean Justice, under the orders of Mugabe who hates homosexuals. The unfortunate pastor was sentenced to ten years in prison, he was released through the intervention of Nelson Mandela after eight months in prison. His wife and children flee him as a disease and get political asylum in Britain. At 67, he died of grief in Harare on 10 November 2003.

His longevity is inversely proportional to that of his neighbors!


         Samora Machel, President of Mozambique, 53, enters the top of at Mbala in Zambia, on October 19, 1986, his plane, a Tupolev 134- TU-b, flies over Zimbabwe crashing Mbuzini in South Africa. The summit which he has just witnessed reunite Mozambique, Zambia, Angola and Zaire. Samora Machel had accused Mobutu Sese Seko of Zaire and Hastings Kamuzu Banda of Malawi to support his armed opposition of RENAMO. Two great wizards who hardly support the boldness of the young Marxist of Mozambique. Who was able to place the false radio beacon mobile (developed by the Israeli MOSSAD) used to divert the aircraft in its path as he headed right to Maputo? To hide his crime, Mobutu asked his ambassador of Zaire, the former footballer Emmanuel Batala Tokwaulu to return to Maputo aboard the Tupolev of Samora. He will be part of 24 victims of the crash. While Hastings Kamuzu Banda was stayed warm in his palace plan probably hit with Hans Louw of the South African Special Forces.
         Laurent Désiré Kabila, president of R.D. Congo, whose bodyguard was provided by Zimbabwean soldiers and though he was his great friend was murdered on 16 January 2001, in his office in Kinshasa in 62 years. And for the record, Zimbabweans have carried his body bullet riddled in Harare, before his funeral in Kinshasa. Mugabe himself has he done an autopsy to the African (Witchcraft) that his ghost can not come back to haunt his adopted son putative and successor Joseph Kabila? In return, he dedicates to him a partner admiration!
         More prosaically, the explanation given by the radio sidewalk Kinshasa: he had his fingerprints still hot to open his chest full of diamonds to the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe.
         His predecessor Mobutu Sese Seko, he overthrew on the 17 May 1997, died at age 67 in Rabat of prostate cancer on September 7, 1997. He came to reign supreme on Zaire for 32 years. Exhausted by absolute power, sick, abandoned by all his favorite!

Unexplained heart attacks and waterfall!

           
 Levy Patrick Mwanawasa, President of Zambia was felled by a stroke in the summit of the African Union in Cham el Sheick (Egypt) on June 29, 2008. Admitted to hospital of Clamart in Paris on July 1, 2008, he died on 19 August 2008. He was about to celebrate his sixtieth birthday. In his capacity as Chairman of the African Union , he had declared he would take care of Zimbabwe!
         Three years after his death, his predecessor Frederick Jacob Titus Chiluba who led Zambia from 1991 to 2002, was also struck at age 68 of a heart attack on June 18, 2011, after being humiliated by a trial for misappropriation of public funds and corruption.
          Bingu wa Mutharika, President of Malawi died of heart attack on 5 April 2012. He had crossed the sixties before access to power on May 20, 2004. Coincidentally, he had just replaced Mo'ammar Gaddafi as chairman of the African Union (which he had already assumed the General Secretariat) and the issue of elections in Zimbabwe was still valid. In addition, he had lost the mother of his four children, Ethel Zvauya Mutharika of Zimbabwean origin and is about to marry his former Tourism Minister: Calliste Chapola-Chimongo (his junior by 28 years).

Grand Master of the Central and Southern Africa , year after year, he reigns over Zimbabwe for 33 years.


         "Breakfast with Mugabe", the piece of British playwright Fraser Grace is inspired by an article in the "Times of London" after the disputed presidential election of 2002. It was played in London premieres in London in 2005. It triumphed in November 2013 at Pershing Square Signature Center in New York. Mugabe of Fraser Grace is a depressed patient, secluded in his palace, haunted by the spirit of a dead comrade. He brought an English psychiatrist for treatment.
         But he could, given that Mugabe is haunted by an evil spirit the
"Ngoyi" from the Shona mythology.
         "Whenever Mugabe was in the papers, he was described as a monster. And my starting point was that we are not born monster, one becomes”
says Fraser Grace :“There is no doubt that some features of behavior are monstrous But it is interesting to see that he had many experiences that Nelson Mandela has been: struggle for black emancipation, prison ... They both suffered terrible humiliation and oppression under the settlement".

The frame and the drama they meet reality!

         In the play sessions with the psychiatrist invoke the demons that torment probably Mugabe : his betrayal of his first wife, abandoned by his father in his childhood, the death of his own son during his detention by the colonial regime , and refusal of Ian Smith , leader of the white minority at the time, to leave to attend the funeral .
Breakfast with Mugabe has only four characters: Mugabe and his wife Grace ( 58), Gabriel , his bodyguard and Andrew Peric , the psychiatrist employed by the White Zimbabwean president. Peric , played by actor Ezra Barnes , is the first meeting of Grace Mugabe, wife of the secretary became president after the death of the previous one. Known for his taste for luxury and his escapades that have contributed to the presidential couple banished from the Western community , it is called by its detractors "First shopper " (" first purchaser " ) or " Gucci Grace" , or simply " Disgrace " .
Mrs. Grace Mugabe aka " First shopper " or " Disgrace "
Played by Rosalyn Coleman, alternately friendly and menacing , the first lady causes Peric while waiting Mugabe. He assures her that his intentions are "pure" . Then she replied : " And what do you think there are so Zimbabwe is pure ? " , Adding : " Do what you're told , or you will not treat long your patient. "
         Played by Michael Rogers, Mugabe has certainly sought help from Peric, but it supports it difficult to be vulnerable to a white man. Their relationship is so electric. While the psychiatrist asks Mugabe on the ghost that continues, he is engaged in his usual aggressiveness, attacking Peric, his White ancestors who had stolen their land from the Africans and their voices.
         Peric, who has a good knowledge of the Shona culture, which is described by Ezra Barnes as "postracial", retorted that, as many of these Whites whose European ancestors came to settle on the mainland, he considers himself African. Unfortunately for the psychiatrist and his family  his meeting with Mugabe will have terrible consequences.

Robert and I have stayed with Ceausescu!

         Praised by critics for its Shakespearean dimension , the piece explores the tragic nature of power : the loss can sometimes be synonymous with degradation. "I'm afraid of the future",
said the first lady.
         "Robert and I stayed with these people Romania, Ceausescu ... Look what happened to them", she said referring to the infamous dictator, executed in 1990 with his wife, whose arrogance was not without evoke that of Grace.
         The piece was produced for the first time in a London theater in 2005. It now plays in New York until October 6, 2013, ten years after its conception. "In many ways things have gone down in Zimbabwe",
said Fraser Grace .

“Fuck you hang!”

         Heidi Holland, the South African journalist, who published in 1975 a book entitled "Dinner with Mugabe"
* had hanged herself in his garden in Melville (Johannesburg) , at 64 11 August 2012 without really knowing why. Ms. Fraser Grace Will it suffer the same fate ?
Mugabe said: "I ​​do not make enemies. Others make me enemy of theirs", and after his victory in the presidential elections on 31 July 2013, who swore he wants to govern Zimbabwe to 100 years, has launched his opponents who challenged his victory in court: "Fuck you hang!
". An insult or a curse, we will never know?
-------------------------------------------------- ------------------
*HOLLAND H.,, Dinner With Mugabe : The Untold Story of a Freedom Fighter Who Became a Tyrant
, Nathalie Ross, 2008.

jeudi 7 novembre 2013

Mozambique: Demonstration of former secret agents outside the presidential palace.

 
The first manifestation of former spies in the world.

        
More than 300 former Mozambican secret agents demonstrated outside the presidential palace in Maputo Thursday to demand payment of their pensions , found an AFP journalist.
        
"Now that the end of his term approach, we do not want the president to finish his term without solving our problem", said their spokesman Adolf Beira, referring to President Armando Emilio Guebuza*, who must leave power the next year.
        
The former spy, who claim to be more than 2.000, claim to have been fired and replaced by youngers. They claim more than three years of pension arrears.

But really how much wins the agent 007 in Mozambique?

        
Secret agents have ended their protest, closely monitored by heavily armed soldiers, after their representatives had met with associates of President Guebuza.
        
"If they do not solve it now, then there will always protests. We will address all state institutions", warned Mr. Beira.
        
They had already shown in February, saying at the time that the wave of kidnappings in the capital, Maputo, could not be stopped without their help.
        
Mozambique for two years the scene of many abductions hitting wealthy businessmen-especially Muslims-and more recently children and expatriates.
---------------------------------------------------------------
* Armando Emilio Guebuza, born January 20, 1943, member of the Liberation Front of Mozambique (FRELIMO) since 1963, he is President of the Republic of Mozambique since 2 February 2005. He is poet and wealthy businessman. Nicknamed Mr Gue-business, he replaced Dr. Joachim Alberto Chissano (1986-2005), who oversaw a move away from Marxism and the introduction of a multi-party constitution, after the death of independent Mozambique's first president Samora Machel on October 19, 1986.

Rwanda: These women are the pride of the history of Rwanda.

 
The Poetess Nyirarumaga Nyiraruganzu.

         Originally from Gihogwe cya Jali, she becomes orphaned very young. In her youth, she hides mwami Ruganzu Ndori II (1510-1675) in his house to escape the assassins sent by Byinshi, his uncle, pretender to the throne and his nemesis. Discovered and surrounded on all sides, and on the advice of nyirarumaga, Ruganzu bare hands to dig a tunnel in the center of the house in which he escaped. This tunnel is known as the "Umwoobo w'Inyaga" in the history of Rwanda. Queen-Adoptive Mother and co-reigning of Mwami Ruganzu Ndori said Ruganzu-Mutabazi, one of the most famous kings of Rwanda considered the real founder of the Kingdom of Rwanda. According to tradition, the poetess founded the Chair of the Poets "Intebe y'abasizi" a Royal Institute whose objective was to promote and preserve the art of poetic composition "Gusiga". Herself consists of a number of poems and his great son Ruganzu. After having collected and codified the literary knowledge of previous generations, she establishes a system for collecting and recording new works infallible litterary. Thereby composers Chanters "Abasizi" withdraw into solitude and silence "Kujya mu nganzo" to tap into their compositions transcendental meditation "Gukama ijuru".

“Inganzo za Mushongi” or The real King Solomon mines!

         "Inganzo za Mushongi", the name of a mine royal iron becomes extension and figuratively a treasure trove "Inganzo". Is this perhaps why some European legends placed the mines of King Solomon (another wise king) in Rwanda? King Ruganzu II Ndori himself, did not milked milk from heaven to feed his kingdom according to legend? To sustain the structures of the institution, the queen mother sends adopted the first bards teach poetry, chronicles the history "Ibitekerezo" and family Science "Ubucurabwenge" to "Intore (elected)" in schools called "Amatorero" courses provincial lords. Abbot Alexis Kagame* collected 176 poems from the last Abasizi he published in two books: La Poésie dynastique au Rwanda (The Poetry dynastic Rwanda, 1951) and Introduction aux Grands genres lyriques de l'ancien Rwanda (Introduction to Great lyrical genres of ancient Rwanda, 1969).

lundi 4 novembre 2013

Burundi: Ntare III Rushatsi, the founder of the Baganwa dynasty had licentious manners.

 
Issued of an irregular union between his father and the wife of his brother.

         Successor of mwami Ruhinda, founder of Ganwa Dynasty (1700-1725). His complet name is
Ntare I Kivimira Savuyimba Semunganzashamba Rushatsi Cambarantama. Son of Chief Jabwe of Mugamba, by an irregular union with the wife of his brother, Chief Nsoro of Butatsi. It has been suggested that he was born in Mugamba, Burundi around 1657 as a member of the Ganwa class and may have been related to the Twa and Tutsi ethnic groups. Adopted by his paternal aunt, Inamabuye, and her husband, Chief Ruhinda (Ruhaga) of Buha, he conquered his father's province of Mugamba and expanded his kingdom to include Ngozi, Muramvya, Kitega, Bururi and Rutana.  Burundians have devoted him several legends. Some legends claim that he fell from the sky on the shores of Lake Tanganyika in the company of religious hero Kiranga. The nearest version of the truth brought the Kingdom of Rwanda, where he was educated by a wren Mashira, before becoming Kanyaburundi. The most common version claims that his princely education would have given him by his aunt, wife of King of Buha  under the pseudonym of Cambarantama “(He who is clothed in the skin of a sheep)".

He introduced the emblematic drum Karyenda in Burundi.

         The soothsayers were then escorted to Nkoma, where he fashioned his drum emblem "Karyenda". To proclaim himself mwami, he would have eliminated a usurper known as Jabwe rya Nkabata rya Rurenge and killed him near Bururi. He would have conquered the Nkoma and fought against the bami Ruganzu Ndori and Mibambwe Sekarongore of Rwanda. Upon his arrival in Burundi, he was accompanied by the judge "umushingantahe" named Sacyaga. He introduced in Burundi, the technique of forging, Ubushingantahe institution and ritual Muganuro (Feast of the premises). Feeling his death coming, he would have killed his favorite and his faithful or cute, Gikori saying "Those who love to not leave". . His estate seems to have been particularly bloody, until Mwezi II Rufuku wins. His reign ended in 1709. He died in 1709, having had issue, a daughterHe was succeded by Mwezi I Ndagushimiye. Considered as the first real Mwami of Burundi by some versions (Mworoha E, 1977), from the reign of Ntare I Rutshatsi-Cambarantama up to the sixteenth reign which was that of Mwambutsa IV Bangiricenge.

vendredi 1 novembre 2013

Iran: The mystery of the "Valley of the sexes" in Iran.

 
As the giant statues of Easter Island.

        
The site of the Valley of the sexes in Iran is 90 km from the city of Gonbad-e-Qaboos (137,285 inhabitants in 2006) in the province of Golestan. For centuries, the site hosts several sculptures resembling to phallic symbols (up to 600 sculptures), very old tombstones. The oldest of these carved columns date back a thousand years and more than 500 years, were built during the Middle Age, while the latest would have 70 years, according to archaeologists. As the statues of Easter Island, each was cut from a single stone.

Undetermined origin of sexual sculptures.


         An Iranian legend says that these symbolic representations are apostates petrified by the curse of the prophet or Khalid bin Khalid Nabi Nabi, whose mausoleum is located in the middle of the green valleys of Gonbad-e-Qaboos. Before his death, he would have asked God to transform his infidels pursuers in stone. But why, some of sculptures with their roundness are reminiscent of women's breasts? Others are in the shape of animal heads, mainly rams.
         What makes this risky hypothesis, is phallic sculptures found in other Iranian cemeteries. Iranian archaeologists believe they mark places respectively, which were buried women, men and important figures of the tribes.

The imposing tower of Gonbad-e-Qabu would not it served as a model?


         With a height of 70 meters, this mausoleum is the tallest tower in the world. Built in 1006 and 1007 on order of the Ziyaride Emir Shams ol- Ma'ali Qaboos bin Wushmgir, is located at 3 km in the north of the ancient city of Jorjan (Gorgan) and was built during the reign of Ziyarides. The Legend has it that after his death, the body of the emir was placed in a glass coffin and hung from the ceiling of the tower. Humanity heritage Site since 2012, the authenticity of the monument is evidenced by the inscription in Arabic : "This great monument was built for Amir Shams ul- Ma'ali Qaboos ibn Amir Wushmgir at its command, during his life in the 397 years after the Hijra of the lunar calendar, in the 375 years of the solar calendar . "
        
Its shape resembles oddly with a giant phallus. Why artists of the "Valley of the sexes" of Gonbad-e-Qabus, no one would not be inspired?
         The Iranian authorities do not seem interested in preserving the site, yet visited by many tourists. Theft and vandalism threatens to disappear this cultural and artistic heritage. However, the cemetery is officially part of the national heritage. Religious sensibility prevails it on History in Iran?