samedi 28 septembre 2013

Austria: "The list of Freud " or how Sigmund Freud sacrificed his sisters to the Nazis*.

 
Sigmund Freud, the father of modern psychoanalysis, brother and father first.

        
Sigmund Schlomo Freud was born on May 6, 1856 in Freiberg, Moravia in the Austro-Hungarian Empire (now Fridor, Czech Republic), physician and neurologist, founder of psychoanalysis died in London on 23 September 1939.
        
Third son of Kalamon Jakob Freud Jewish wool merchant and Amalia Nathanson (11836-1931), originating in Galicia between Poland and Ukraine. He is the eldest of eight children, two boys and five girls : Julius (October 1857-15 April 1858), (Anna (31 December 1858-11 March 1955), Deborah alias Rosa Regina (March 21, 1860- deported on September 23, 1942), Maria aka Mitzi aka Dolfi (March 22, 1861, deported on 23 September 1942), Esther Adolfine (March 22, 1862-February 6, 1943), Pauline Regine (March 3, 1864, deported on 23 September 1942) and Gotthold Ephraim Alexander, born on April 18, 1866 , died in Toronto on April 22, 1943 .
        
While he is 3 years old, his family emigrated to Vienna, where he spend a studious children in relative poverty. After his brilliant medical school, he married Martha Bernays (1861-1951), Jewish like him on October 13, 1886 at Wandsbek. She gives him six children: Matilda, born in 1887, John Martin, born in 1889, Oliver, born in 1891, Ernest , born in 1892, Sophie, born in 1893 and Anna, born in 1895.
        
On the death of his father on 23 October 1896, Freud was dejected by pain. He discovered an Oedipus complex vis-à-vis his mother after "work digging into his past”.
        
In May 1933, his books were burned in Germany during the Nazi book burnings  yet he refuses to go into exile until March 1938, when the Germans come to Vienna. That’s when her daughter Anna was arrested one day by the Gestapo, he agreed to follow the advice of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society, which  decides that every Jew analyst must leave the country, and the headquarters of the organization must be transferred where Freud resides.

I can heartily recommend the Gestapo to everyone (Sic).

        
Thanks to the intervention of the U.S. ambassador to France William Christian Bullitt (1891-1967) and especially a ransom of $ 4,824 paid to the Nazis by Princess Marie Bonaparte (1882-1962) -and  reimbursed by Freud on his arrival at London-, the first president of the Society of psychoanalysis in France, his wife, his daughter Anna and his domestic Paula Fichti can leave Vienna by Orient-Express on June 4, 1838 after the annexation (Anschluss) of Austria to Germany.
        
Upon leaving, he signed a declaration that he was not mistreated, "I, Professor Freud hereby declare that since the annexation of Austria by the German Reich, I was treated with the respect and consideration due to my reputation as a scientist by the German authorities and especially by the Gestapo and I could live and work enjoying full freedom, I could also continue the pursuit of my activities the way I wanted and to this end, I met with the full support of those interested , I have no place to send the smallest complaint".
        
According to his son Martin, he would have added ironically : "I can heartily recommend the Gestapo to everyone."

Home, installation and death of Freud in London.

         The Freud Family is received in London with honors, including the U.S. ambassador to France, William Christian Bullitt Freud has befried in recent years. The two men have worked together to effect a study of U.S. President Thomas Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) entitled "Woodrow Wilson: A Psychological Study" published in 1966. He settled with his family in a chic house in 20 Maresfield Gardens in Hampstead (current Freud Museum). He was appointed a member of the Royal Society of Medicine and received the appointment at him, unable to move, exhausted by cancer of the jaw due to tobacco, which appeared in 1923 and thirty-two operations and successive treatments.
        
He received three grains of morphine at his request (a lethal dose) and dark in a coma before his staff and psychoanalyst Polish physician, Max Schur (1897-1969), with the consent of his wife Anna on September 23, 1939. That is why, on the eve of the death of Freud, Max Schur left London for the United States of America.

The list of Freud, the Oedipus complex and the unhappy fate of his sisters.

        
Discovered during his self-analysis, it is he who has the Oedipus complex a central concept of psychoanalysis. How has he been the victim by giving her own sisters to certain death in Nazi concentration camps? Would he not simply transferred his Oedipus complex his mother to her sisters by making the objects of his morbid hatred threshold of his poor dead ?
        
So that he issues visas for England, he is allowed to submit a list of twenty people to take with him. How has he been able to refuse to register the names of his sisters, Rosa, Mary, and Paula Adolfina, this list containing his doctor, the latter's family, his nurses, his servants, his sister-in ... and even his dog? Scorn, coldness, selfishness engineering, blindness to the Nazi threat? Freud claims that his sisters do not risk anything by staying in Vienna, choosing exile himself. They were deported to Theresienstadt from June 28, 1942 among 983 elderly. Only the eldest, Anna, emigrated with her husband, Eli Bernays since 1892, escapes deportation.
        
Thus, it is established that the siblings still living in Vienna, Freud was no exception deported in 1942 from Vienna to Theresienstadt in the first place. Paula Winternitz was gassed at Maly Trostinec along with Maria and Rosa Graf Treblinka in October 1942. Adolfine died of starvation in Theresienstadt on February 5, 1943.

A bold novel, beyond a partisan vision!

        
"The reasons for the decision of Freudare unknown, I could not imagine" recognizes the Macedonian writer Goce Smilevski* author of the novel : "The Freud Sisters (La liste de Freud), Belfond, Paris, 2013", to just out and subject to controversy, has been awarded the European Prize for Literature.
        
"In Macedonia, people are very few in the psychoanalyst, perhaps because in our small country, everyone talks a lot", smiled Goce Smilevski , that has been studied literature at several universities in Skopje Prague and Budapest.

         For the historian of psychoanalysis, Elisabeth Roudinesco, which bears no criticism of Freud, the latter's responsibility is not engaged, "the exile of Freud was negotiating hard and he could not do out Adolfine and sisters, it is because he did not get visas. not because he hated them. You could say in a novel, but not argue that it is the truth. There are rules to follow".
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* Born in 1975 in Skopje, where he still lives, novelist Goce Smilevski notably received the European Prize for Literature for this vibrant novel tribute to the struggle of women forgotten by history.

mardi 24 septembre 2013

Rwanda: racism and genocide, Hamitic ideology*.

 
Save the savagery of inferior peoples !

        
Historians Jean-Pierre Chrétien and Marcel Kabanda specialists of Great Lakes region, decrypt in a book, the process of which resulted in 1994 on Tutsi genocide in Rwanda racist ideology.
        
In the Europe of the late nineteenth century racism legitimized colonial expansion, the open or insidious conducted by major powers against black African war. It claimed to "save" the savagery of "inferior peoples".
        
In France, Paul Broca (1824-1880) , founder of the Anthropological Society of Paris, said that never a "people with black skin, woolly hair and prognathous face could rise up spontaneously civilization".

The intellectual inferiority of the Negro can be read on his face expressionless or mobility.

        
In 1872, also obsessed with human rankings, Louis Figuier published "Human Races", a large volume reprinted several times which in turn conveyed racialist archetypes: "The intellectual inferiority of the Negro can be read on his face expressionless or mobility. The Negro is a child. The people of negro race that exist in a state of freedom, within Africa, can hardly exceed the level of tribal life. On the other hand, there is so much trouble in many colonies, to make good use of the negroes, trusteeship Europeans is their so essential to keep them in the benefits of civilization, the inferiority of their intelligence, compared to the rest of mankind, and an indisputable fact".
        
These "thinkers" of Room were relayed on the ground by "White saviors", adventurers and missionaries. It is difficult to imagine the thick prejudices they conveyed. In our secularized European societies, "creationists" American retrograde struggling to ban the teaching of evolution today is fun. But in Europe of Paul Broca, Louis Figuier (to cite only French) and many others, public opinion shaped by Christianity was "naturally" creationist. It was thought that the history of humanity was contained in the Old Testament.

The accounts of explorers sustainable permeate the Western collective unconscious.

        
In Central Africa, the "discoverers" were advancing Bible in the pocket. As they explore the African Great Lakes between 1857 and 1863, the British Richard Francis Burton (1821-1890) and John Haning Speke (1827-1864) tried to find in the Old Testament origin of peoples and kingdoms they crossed. The stories of Livingstone, Stanley, Burton, Garnier, Brazza, Shackleton, Scott, Amundsen and others circulated in popular magazines such as "Around the World" broadcast to hundreds of thousands of copies. These stories were read and discussed with passion. They permanently permeate the Western collective unconscious .
        
According to the ideology of the time, all human settlements and all animal categories came from Noah's Ark , rescued from the flood. In a fit of anger, the patriarch Noah was then cursed his son Cham (or Ham), who fled with his wife and children to who knows where. This mysterious asylum not it the "Land of Mountains of the Moon" where the great geographer Ptolemy placed the ancient source of the Nile, mythical river? It was the conviction of Richard Burton and John Speke, and also their interest "media". Inspired racialist of the time, they also persuaded that "ordinary Negroes" were not really men, they did not come out of Noah's Ark and a lower component were somewhere between primates and humans.
        
But faced with other "Negroes" on different morphology, larger, with fine features and sophisticated empires who ruled in the Great Lakes region, Burton and Speke - especially the last- clamored for their return that they not only had found the source of the white Nile, but also the lost tribe of Israel (after the flood, Noah would curse their dark skin). Otherwise, how these "Negroes" would they be able to "rise spontaneously to civilization"?

The history of Rwanda could not be other than the receptacle of a "tropical Nazism".

        
These people "superior" were, according to John Speke, the "Hamitic" or "Hamites", depending on how you spelled the name of the cursed son. The "Hamitic" (the terminology used by the seed) were scattered among the other Negroes, they called themselves Hima Tutsi, etc.. In the story of John Speke 's discovery of the sources of the Nile, there is a picturesque passage where the explorer tries to convince an Ankole king of his Jewish ancestry/Hamitic.
        
These delusions "ethnographic" could remain outdated and ridiculous, but the manipulation of the body as Hamitic ideology of domination or conquest of power by settlers, missionaries, and the elite of the "decolonization". We will not unveil the light demonstration of historians Jean- Pierre Chrétien and Marcel Kabanda policy ravages of this ideology to the Tutsi genocide in Rwanda and the massacre of Hutu Democrats - who denounced this ideology - in 1994. European raciology produced Nazism. The history of Rwanda could not be other than the receptacle of a "tropical Nazism". Jean- Pierre Chrétien and Marcel Kabanda, who are also humanists remind aptly after a flawless demonstration.
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* CHRETIEN J.P. & KAMBANDA M., Rwanda, Hamitic ideology and genocide, Belin, Paris, 2013.

*Review of Jean- François Duparquier published by Afrikarabia on 23/09/2013.

lundi 23 septembre 2013

Chile: The last speech of President Salvador Allende Gossens on September 11, 1973.

 
Placed at a historic turning point in my life I will pay the loyalty of the people.

My friends,

        
This is definitely the last time I have to speak to you. The air force has bombed the towers of Radio Portales and Radio Corporación. My words are not marked with bitterness but disappointment, and will be the moral punishment of those who have betrayed their oath: soldiers of Chile, the commanders holders and Admiral Merino, who has promoted himself, not to mention Mr. Mendoza, who generally treacherous, yesterday, showed his faithfulness and loyalty to the government, and now just proclaim Director General of the Carabineros .
        
Given these facts, there is one thing I can say to workers: I will not resign! Placed at a historic turning point in my life I will pay the loyalty of the people. And I 'm sure the seed sown in the consciousness worthy of thousands and thousands of Chileans will not be torn forever.
        
They have the strength, they can enslave us , but social processes do not stop with the crime or with force.

The story belongs to us and it is the people who make it.

Workers of my country,

        
I want to thank you for your loyalty always trust you filed a man who was the interpreter of the great desires of justice, who gave his word to respect the Constitution and the law, and the held.
        
This last time, the last where I can speak to you, I ask you to put to use this lesson: Foreign capital and imperialism, united with the reaction, created the climate in which the Armed Forces broke their tradition, one that taught them the General Schneider and reaffirmed commander Araya, who fell victims of the same social stratum which now awaits a warm foreign labor makes him the power to continue defending their profits and privileges.
        
I address first the modest woman of our land, the peasant who believed in us, the workers who worked more, the mother who knew our concern for children.
        
I appeal to workers in professions that have a patriotic conduct, those who acted against sedition encouraged by corporate organizations, levels of class that only seek to defend the benefits of capitalist society that does not give' with a handle.
        
I appeal to the youth, those who sang and communicated their joy and their fighting spirit. I address the man of Chile, the worker , the farmer, the intellectual, to all those who are persecuted ... because in our country fascism has already made ​​known long ago in the terrorist attacks, blowing up bridges, cutting the railroad tracks, destroying the oil and gas pipelines, enjoying the silence of those who were obliged to defend ... history will judge!

I am certain that my sacrifice will not be useless.

        
Radio Magallanes will surely be silenced, and the tranquil sound of my voice will not happen to you.
        
Regardless, you will continue to hear, I will always be by your side, my memory will be at least that of a worthy man who was faithful to the loyalty of workers.
        
The people must defend themselves, but not sacrifice. The people should not get screened or crushed, but it must also not let humble .

Workers of my country,

        
I think Chile and its destiny. Other men will overcome this gray and bitter moment when treason attempts to impose .
Go ahead and know that in a far closer than is wide open to new avenues through which to advance the free man to build a better future society .

Long live Chile! Long live the people! Long live the workers!

        
These are my last words. I am certain that my sacrifice will not be useless, and I 'm sure it will be at least a moral lesson to punish felony, cowardice and treason.
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* Salvador Allende Gossens born June 26, 1908 and died September 11, 1973 was a doctor and socialist statesman, President of the Republic of Chile on 3 November 1970 and 11 September 1973. Did he really committed suicide and he was shot at the Palais of the Moneda bombed? After this horrific coup, Pinochet established a military dictatorship that was more than more than 3,100 victims until 1990. For his friend, the former Cuban President Fidel Castro, he was assassinated.

samedi 21 septembre 2013

Tunisia/Syria: The Tunisian "jihadists sex" in Syria*.

 
Do you know the " Jihad al-nikah or holy war sex?”

         The Minister of Interior Tunisian Lotfi Ben Jeddou confirmed at a hearing before the House of Representatives, that Tunisians went in Syria to "gender jihad"
and will satisfy the sexual needs of veterans.
The information was initially denied this summer. But on Thursday, the Minister of Interior Tunisian Lotfi Ben Jeddou confirmed at a hearing before the House of , that Tunisians went in Syria to "gender jihad "
and will satisfy the sexual needs of veterans. "They have sex with 20 , 30, 100 jihadists", he has said in the gallery of the National Constituent Assembly (N.C.A.), without specifying whether these figures correspond to the daily acts.
         He added: "After the sex they have in the name of jihad al-nikah (note: the holy war of sex), they come back pregnant".
Tunisian Minister did not say how many Tunisians have returned to Syria in this state and under what conditions they were supported. He does not specify either the number of young women who are or have been in Syria for this purpose, while the press evokes hundreds of such cases as hundreds of men went to fight the troops of President Bashar al- Assad. However, he felt that since he took office in March, "6,000 of our young people have been prevented from going there".

A new Salafi incongruity!


         Jihad al-nikah, allowing extramarital sex with multiple partners, is considered by some Salafi officials as a legitimate form of holy war. The Interior Ministry recently admitted tightened controls at airports to prevent the departure of men and women suspected of wanting to Syria.
         According to Tunisian media, thousands of Tunisians have joined, via Turkey and Libya, the ranks of jihadists over the past fifteen years across the world, in Afghanistan, Iraq and now Syria. The leader of Ansar Ashariaa, Senior jihadist movement in Tunisia, Abu Iyadh is thus a veteran of Afghanistan and co- led the group responsible for the assassination on September 9, 2001 of Massoud, leader of the anti-Taliban rebels.
_______________________________

*Article published by LeParisien.fr with AFP of 09.20.2013.

vendredi 20 septembre 2013

United States: Harvard University, the prestigious American University's Centre for the Study of African and African American Research*.

 
Finally omission of alma mater, repaired soon!

         The prestigious American Harvard University has received a whopping $ 15 million to create a research center devoted to African and African American Studies .
         Fifteen million dollars is not nothing. This is the amount that the U.S. private equity magnate, Glenn Hutchins, just give Harvard University to create within this institution a research center devoted to African and African American studies should bear his name.
         Indeed, the head of the firm Silver Lake has given a total of 30 million to Harvard, but it is half the amount that should be used to create the Hutchins Center for African and African American Research, bringing together several existing entities and new .
         Already exist: W.E.B. Du Bois Research Institute, the Hip Hop Archive and Research Insitute, the Image of the Black Archive and Library, the Du Bois Review, Transition Magazine, Neil L. and Angelica Zander Rudenstine Gallery, Hutchins Family Library.
         Will be created: the Afro-Latin American Research Institute, History Design Studio, the Program for the Study of Race and Gender in Science and Medicine, the Ethelbert Cooper Gallery of African and African American Art.

An old friendship before  the "Beer summit".

         This gift, which will confirm Harvard as one of the most advanced universities in "Black studies" is not the result of chance. This is the result of a long friendship between a White businessman of 57 years and a Black professor of 63 years, Henry Louis Gates Jr., nicknamed "Skip". Author, critic, essayist, documentary, specialist in African cultures, he had hit the headlines in 2009 by being briefly detained by police while trying to force the door of his own home in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Having too harshly criticized the behavior of Sergeant James Crowley, President Barack Obama had to backtrack and the case had resulted in what is now known as the "Beer summit
" in which Obama, Biden, Gates and Crowley had raised their glasses as an appeasement ...

The directors of the dream of the fathers of Pan-Africanism William Edward Burghardt Du Bois and Kwame Nkrumah**.

         If Hutchins is a graduate of Harvard and Yale Gates, the two men are regularly: they all go fishing or lunch at the Four Seasons in Manhattan. There is little, they both accompanied the mother Hutchins celebrations of the 50th anniversary of the March on Washington and Gates took the son of Hutchins in a meeting with President Obama ...
"We love ideas and we love to build"
said Gates while Hutchins emphasizes that while the establishment of the center in Harvard "creates an infrastructure within the department and the solid foundations on which it will be possible to develop". In practical terms, the Hutchins Center will be hosted on Harvard Square, in a building designed by the architect David Adjaye of Ghanaian origin.
         Its creation will be officially announced on October 2, 2013 at the ceremony during which Harvard gives its traditional rewards –W.E.B. Du Bois medals Wood- in the field of African and African American Studies. Will be honored this year Obama adviser Valerie Jarrett, the playwright Tony Kushner, Congressman John Lewis, Justice of the Supreme Court Sonia Sotomayor, director Steven Spielberg and David Stern, the N.B.A. Commissioner.
          "As long as there Harvard research on people of African descent exist. We created something permanent", is looking forward Gates. In the United States, African-American studies are also represented by Cornel West, who teaches at the Union Theological Seminary and Kwame Anthony Appiah, who teaches at Princeton .
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*By Nicolas Michel, published by Jeune Afrique
on September 20, 2013.
** Henry Louis Gates Jr. and Kwame Anthony Appiah including jointly published in 1999, a project designed by Kwame Nkrumah and W.E.B. Du Bois: "Africana. The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience".

vendredi 13 septembre 2013

Egypt/Switzerland: Lotfia El Nadi, The first African and Egytian female to earn a pilot license!

 
"I learned to fly because I love to be free"!

         Born in Cairo in 1906. At 22, after finishing her school she found out about the newly established flying school and decided to join it . However , her father rejected the idea and when she insisted he allowed her to pursue her dream but decided that he is not going to pay for her education. This, however, did not stop her ; instead she took up a job as a telephone operator in Egypt Air and with her salary paid for her flying classes. She took aviation lessons at her expense. At the age of 26, she became the first Egyptian female to earn a pilot license in Egypt. The same year, she was on a flight from Alexandria to Cairo to show that Egyptian women were equal to men in all areas. Her English teacher was so excited about the idea that he sent a picture of her to the international press and so she became very famous especially when in the same year of her graduation she won the Alexandria to Cairo flying competition.

Egyptian for ever, Swiss by accident!

         Unfortunately in the early 50s she had a terrible accident while landing that left her with a broken spine and damaged face and forced her to leave Egypt for Switzerland on a long journey of treatment and has remained there ever since. She lived in Lausanne and took Swiss citizenship and then moved to Toronto in Canada. She helped establish the Pilots’ Club and was its secretary general for 20 years. When asked why she wanted to fly, she replied "I learned to fly because I love to be free." She never married, and lived at Lausanne, in Switzerland till her death in Cairo in 2002.

mardi 10 septembre 2013

Vatican: Pope François offers religious orders to resettle refugees in empty convents.

 
The Catholic Church for its original purpose.

         Pope François Tuesday called Rome the religious orders to welcome refugees in empty convents, which must not be used to " make money ".
          "The empty convents do not serve the church to transform them into hotels to earn money. Empty monasteries are not us, they are in the flesh of Christ represent the refugees
" has he said during a visit to a home in the capital center.

         "Certainly this is not something simple, criteria are needed, but also the responsibility of courage. We do so (for refugees), but perhaps we are called to do more",
he added.

Like Saint Francis of Assisi (1182-1226)!

         Continuing on helping the poor and refugees, the Argentine Pope said that "charity which leaves the poor as it is not enough: it is not enough to give a sandwich"
as " true mercy (...) demand justice, is that the poor can find no way to be".
         Due to the quasi-permanent absence of religious vocations, the Catholic Church by opening the doors of its empty convents to these helpless sheeps by wars and dictators worldwide, will gain new vocations, who will know what it means the words "Charity and mercy". Like St. Francis of Assisi, who has spent his entire life to the promotion of solidarity with the poor and marginalized, the Pope who has his name finally became the pontiff of the poor and needy.

         During this visit to the refugee Astalli center, run by the Jesuits in the center of Rome , the pope met many volunteers and religious refugees.

         True to his understated style, Pope Francis had visited the center to the edge of a regular car, with no other escort than the head of the Vatican Gendarmerie.

Guinea/Spain: The fabulous destiny of the guinean slave, Juan Alfonso de Sessa!

 
From Juan de Sessa to Juan Latino!

         Son of black slaves from Guinea who was born
in the household of Don Luiz Fernández de Córdoba, the Count of Cabra, in Baena, in 1518. Brought with her ​​mother in Seville, he is sold. He became page to Earl Don Luiz Fernandez de Cordoba and his wife Dona Elvira,  capita of Cabra (Cordoba province/Spain). When the Count died in 1530, his wife Dona Elvira moves the family to Granada (city back from the hands of Moroccans by the Christians in 1492). His son Don Gonzalo of the same age as their slave Juan Latino began his studies at the school of Pedro Mota in Granada. The young page accompanies the school to carry her books and notebooks. While his master is in class, he takes the opportunity to train and read books. Freed from slavery by his young master, he can finally learn with him. Very interested in medicine, he is discouraged by his comrades and opts for learning Greek and Latin. It was at this time that his comrades nicknamed him Juan Latino and he abandons his slave’s name of Juan Alfonso de Sessa.

The Negro  Juan Latino, “Licenciado”, without prejudice because of the color of his skin!

         With his master, Juan Sessa accesses the University of Granada (founded in 1526) encouraged by Pedro Mota, one of the first graduate  in literature in this University in 1532. He surprised his teachers by translating "Horace". He began giving private lessons. In 1546, he graduated from "Bachillerato (Bachelor)" of the University of Granada with 38 other students from Master Benito Peso. Thanks to his good reputation, he became a friend and protégé of Archbishop Pedro Guerrero, Archbishop of Granada since 1546. The latter manages to persuade the Duke of Sessa to give Juan Latino hand of his sister Carlobal Anna, who was his student. She gives him four beautiful Métis: Juana, born on June 30, 1549, Bernardino, born in 1552, Anna, born in 1556 and Juan baptized on March 5, 1559. In 1556, he graduated 'Licenciado (license)"in letters "without prejudice because of the color of his skin", explains historian Martin Ocete. After teaching the letters in his old school while providing private lessons in Latin and Greek grammar. On the recommendation of Archbishop Pedro Guerrero, he succeeded his late former master Pedro Mota (died in 1566) and holds the Chair of Grammar at the University of Granada. On October 18, 1565, he delivered a remarkable speech at the opening of the academic year.

“I thought you were the shadow of one of this gentlemen!”

         In 1576 and in 1587, he also gives lectures at the University Cloister, became blind, he nevertheless continues to provide teaching. Intelligent and sophisticated, he mocked provocations related to his skin color and called himself "The Negro Juan Latino". One day, there reports, Carceres Espinoza, Gregory Sylvester welcomes all his friends and fails Juan Latino. Astonished, Juan asked why. Scots replied: "I thought you were the shadow of one of this gentlemen" alongside his friends and the Duke of Sessa, Archbishop Pedro Guerrero, he meets the dignitaries of Granada. On April 12, 1569, he was received by Don Juan of Austria, the illegitimate son of Charles V and the younger half-brother of King Philip II. The last years of his life were saddened by the death of Archbishop Pedro Guerrero (1576) and his wife Ana Carlobal (3 May 1576) followed on 3 December 1576 by death of his friend and patron the Duke of Sessa. He totally lost his sight and left teaching. He died in Granada on November 20, 1597 and is buried in St. Mary's Church. Besides his famous collection of poems entitled "Austriad" published in 1537, his literary work includes both poems and elegies in Latin vilgilienne of inspiration poems and prose works in Spanish. Whoever signed "Magister Latinus" contributed to the development of the gold age "Humanist" movement literature in Spain. In 1605 , he was cited by Cervantes, in his preface to "Don Quixote." He is considered as the most important African-born scholar in early modern Europe.

dimanche 8 septembre 2013

Uganda: Open wounds of East Africa, Lakwena Alice -Auma.

 
Evil opponent to President Yoweri Museveni!

         His real name, Auma was born in 1956 in the Acholi tribe in Uganda. She converted to Catholicism. On 25 May 1985, after two marriages without children, she claimed to be possessed by the spirit called "Lakwena", which with other minds from the United States, Korea, R. D. Congo, Islamic minds and Acholi. They ordered him to create "The Lord's Resistance Movement" to fight against the government of President Yoweri Museveni to replace him with a government based on the "Ten Commandments of God." In fact, she wants revenge and the overthrow of the military junta of Tito Okello (1914-1996), composed of Acholi officers (August 6, 1986). In less than a year, his army "The Movement of the Holy Spirit " has up to 7,000 fighters (teachers, businessmen, a former minister, young women, ...). Before going into battle, his followers must take an oath on the Bible and water spray that ensures their invincibility. In November 1987, when it was defeated near Jinja, she moved with some of his fighters in the Ifo refugee camp in Kenya.

Acholi savagery known as the Lord's Resistance Army,

         After spending four months in prison for illegal entry into the country, she will eventually have an official guest of Kenya status, she is called "Your Holiness". Rebellion which took the name of "The united Uganda Christian Democratic Army (U.C.D.A.)" then "The Lord's Resistance Army (L.R.A.)" or "Oulm (Acholi grass) " is taken first by his father and by the catechist Joseph Kony and his daughter. The L.R.A. is supported by Sudan. This jacquerie has 200,000 dead and 1.5 million displaced. In 2004, Alice Lakwena was involved in the trafficking of children from Gulu in Uganda to his refugee camp. In 2006, the International Criminal Court (I.C.C.) issued an arrest warrant for war crimes against several rebel leaders, including Joseph Kony. In August 2006, the Ugandan government and the L.R.A. signed a Cessation of Hostilities Agreement. On 17 January 2007, the medium dies at Dadaab refugee camp, in north of Nairobi in Kenya.
His biography was published by H. Behrend under the title of: Alice und die Geister: Krieg Norden in Uganda,
Trickster, Munich, 1993.


samedi 7 septembre 2013

Italy: An unholy alliance between Silvio Berlusconi and “Cosa nostra”, the Sicilian Mafia.

 
Like Julio Andreotti aka "Beelzebub " for his opponents!

        
Leader of the Italian Christian Democracy, Julio Andreoti (1919-2013) was interior minister twice, three times the defense minister, foreign minister for seven years, then named a senator for life in 1991 by President Francesco Cossiga.
        
The Court of Palermo formally establishes that Andreotti has maintained strong links with the Mafia at least until 1980, and used to further his political career to the point of being suspected him even a member of the Mafia. At trial judgment of October 23, 1999, he was acquitted for lack of evidence, but the appeal judgment, delivered on 2 May 2003, a separate trial of facts prior to 1980 subsequent work, and established that Andreotti had "committed" the " offense of participation in the conspiracy and specifically recognized until spring 1980".
        
In response to opposition M.P. Giancarlo Pajetta who said that "power use", Andreotti replied: "Power wears out those who do not".

The Sicilian Mafia is it essential to retain power in Italy?

        
In 2013, the Italian justice clearly suggests the existence of a "pact" for nearly 20 years between Silvio Berlusconi and the Sicilian Mafia, in the grounds of conviction of a close Cavaliere. Depending on the reasons of the Court of Appeal of Palermo, former Senator Marcello Dell'Utri, sentenced in March 2013 to seven years in prison for complicity with the Mafia, has served as "mediator in the pact between Silvio Berlusconi and mafia" under which it provided protection Cavaliere between 1974 and 1992 against hard cash.
        
The Court of Appeal cited a meeting held in May 1974 in Milan by Mr Berlusconi and Dell'Utri with several mafia bosses, who " signed the beginning of this pact binding Berlusconi and Dell'Utri Cosa Nostra (The Sicilian Mafia) until 1992. "

Protection of  "Cosa Nostra" against 40 millions euros.

        
Under this agreement, "the Milanese entrepreneur", “Berlusconi has abandoned any idea of ​​being protected by the offical institutions, and is under the umbrella of the Mafia protection”, "never escape the obligation to pay large sums to the Mafia", according to the expected published by Italian media.
        
Berlusconi had to hire a groom Arcore, for  his villa near Milan, "not so much for its famous passion for horses" only " to ensure a mafia presence in the house," quips the Court.
        
In addition to making money from Silvio Berlusconi to Cosa Nostra through Dell'Utri, the pact allowed that "Mafia association strengthens and consolidates his own power", says the Court.
        
During the appeal trial of Mr Dell'Utri in September 2012, Silvio Berlusconi was heard as a witness for three hours on the possibility that the mafia extorted him through Dell'Utri, some 40 million euros to give him protection. Berlusconi had refuted this, saying he simply wanted to "help a friend".
        
Nicknamed "The Cavalieri" Sylvio Berlusconi was president of Italy government from 1994 to 1995, from 2001 to 2006 and from 2008 to 2011, before found his parliamentary mandate and to be elected senator. He was prosecuted for twenty court cases for corruption, tax fraud, or illegal funding of political parties.
         At 77, he was convicted of incitement to prostitution of a minor and abuse of power, to seven years in prison and a penalty of ineligibility for life.

mercredi 4 septembre 2013

Chile: The Secret Library of Augusto Pinochet*.

 
When I hear the word culture, I reach for my revolver!**

         Dictators of the World did not end to surprise us. Many are aware of their intellectual mediocrity, other are surrounded by brilliant intellectuals who become their heralds failing to be emulated or scapegoat. Others become intellectual luminaries by the magic of absolute power by aligning primers in "Literary Success", others less courageous, hide their inferiority complex in the air of self-sufficiency. But why do they need to look brilliant when their public actions betray their shortcomings daily? All have one thing in common: their intellectual emptiness and their distrust (or hate) vis-à- vis of women and men of letters.


A dead writers, their works for me !

        
Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte (25 November 1915-10 December 2006), who burned the books in the street and sent writers in prison or in exile, secretly amassed a huge library of over 50,000 volumes, according to the survey of a Chilean journalist .
        
"The secret literary life of Augusto Pinochet," just published and already bestseller Chile, by journalist Juan Cristóbal Peña tells how General has collected books compulsively.
        
No poetry or fiction. The library contains mainly books of history, geography and Marxism, the ideology that sought to destroy in the most brutal repression during his years in power (1973-1990 ).
        
The monumental collection "was a kind of theater that Pinochet played himself, to represent an important and cultivated man", Peña analysis, in an interview with AFP, because he "was aware of the background himself of his intellectual mediocrity".

50,000 books, valued at over three million dollars!

        
Distributed in second homes, the existence of the library was known in 2004, along with the discovery of the hidden fortune of Pinochet, estimated at more than $ 20 million and stored in banks in the United States.
        
"It is amazing that this character supposed to read little or nothing, uncultivated in appearance, has owned this private library which is one of the largest in Chile and perhaps in Latin America", notes Peña Investigation judicial totaled about 50,000 pounds , conservatively estimated by Peña, more than three million.
        
Most of the works were acquired by the former dictator in old bookstores downtown Santiago and the State funds. Among the most valuable works are collected by Pinochet "The historical narrative of the Kingdom of Chile", written by the Jesuit Alonso de Ovalle in the seventeenth century, and two copies, dating from 1733 and 1776 "La Araucana", an epic poem on the conquest Spanish in Chile, by Alonso de Ercilla, considered as the epic kingdom of Chile and one of the most important works of the Spanish golden Age.
        
The library also contains encyclopedias, atlases and dictionaries as well as many French books on Marxism and Napoleon -his idol- as well as books of Chilean history, his favorite subject, says Peña.

Whole boxes of unopened books !

        
Experts who examined the contents of the library were also found entire boxes of unopened books, works unsorted and "thousands of rare books in a jumble of trinkets, souvenirs, chocolates and personal belongings" notes the book.
        
According to Pena, Pinochet collected books compulsively and feels almost impossible that he has read all. He did not share either, and would not let anyone approach libraries.
        
His obsession is explained by an inferiority complex , according to the author. "He explained himself to be someone who had difficulties to study. He missed twice considering military school and suffered from severe headaches when he was studying too", said Peña.
        
In contrast, some of his classmates as General Carlos Prats, his predecessor as head of the armies of Chile, murdered by the secret police of the dictatorship was brilliant and admired.

Pinochet knew he was despised by his peers.

        
"Pinochet knew he was despised by his peers. When he took power (after the coup of 11 September 1973) , it is hard to eliminate those who could overshadow him", said the reporter.
        
Some of the books confiscated by the dictatorship then fell into the hands of booksellers who sold them later to Pinochet" which brought together a large collection of texts on Marxism and left",  according to Peña .
        
Pinochet has never been to the library catalog and expertise of justice was limited to the analysis of a sample of his collection, so that "we'll never get to know what books and how books" really possessed Pinochet, according to the journalist.
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* Article by Roser Toll in AFP , 27 June 2013.

*
*Baldur Benedikt von Schirach (1907-1974) led the opposition in the Hitler Youth in 1931 and during the first seven years of the NAZI regim from 1933 to 1940.