jeudi 28 juin 2012

Russia/Palestina: If Jesus Christ returned to earth tomorrow, he would be born in the street Vladmir Putin.

 
The street of Bethlehem where Jesus was born was renamed the name of Russian President Vladimir Putin, who was visiting the West Bank Tuesday, said Wednesday 27 june 2012, the office of President of the Palestinian Authority, Mahmoud Abbas.

       The Russian president reacted with humor to this announcement. "I still hope to live for some time,"
he said.

       Vladimir Putin inaugurated a cultural and scientific center, financed by Russia, the street named after him.

Burundi: African 'Princess' in Top Fifa Position.


For  a century, Football is a macho club.

After more than a century as a men-only club, FIFA’s Executive Committee finally has a female member. Lydia Nsekera, president of the Burundian Football Association, joined professional football’s highest body last month. “I hope we’ll see more women holding top positions in football in the future”, she says.
         She parks her Mercedes in the tall grass in front of the Burundi Football Association (FFB), because the parking lot is full. Lydia Nsekera may be the mightiest woman in world football, but she doesn’t have a driver or a dedicated parking spot in front of her office.           
She is tall, modestly clad and welcomes us with a broad smile.
         Burundi’s national team was eliminated in the Africa Cup qualifiers, by Zimbabwe last weekend. “Unfortunate indeed”, says Lydia, “since we had beaten them at home. But away in Harare we conceded two goals so we are out now.”
         Nsekera, 45, was born into a football crazy family. “My father was a club president. At home we talked about two things: history and football. So the love for the game developed automatically.”
         But despite this love, she never took to the pitch as a child herself. “When I was young that was a large taboo; football was a game for men and not for women. The first female football teams in Burundi only came in the early 1990s.”

Football and war.

         Burundi’s most recent civil war began in 1993 and lasted some 12 years with an estimated 300,000 casualties. Yet football continued says Nsekera.
         “During the war I attended matches in Kinama, which was really one of the hotspots. But nothing ever happened that disturbed the competition. Everybody loved it: both the rebels and the government forces. The current president Pierre Nkurunziza, is a football fan too, and he himself is a former rebel leader.”
         By that time, Lydia was already working for the FFB. “In 2004 the association was electing a new president. But there were lots of internal power struggles going on. Then I was asked to run for president. I competed with two men and to my surprise I won nearly all the votes.”
         When asked if she is the only female football president in Africa she clarifies: “Not only in Africa. In the whole world!”

An example for the world.

         The world football body elected Nsekera as a board member on 25 May. FIFA president Sepp Blatter described her as ‘a princess’
. He added that ‘she is a lovely lady, but she can also be tough.’
         FIFA’s Executive Committee has faced repeated accusations of corruption. Responding to the criticism Nsekera says “a process to create more transparency is under way.”
         “Let Burundi now be an example for the world,” Nsekera concludes. “We are a small country, not very rich. This is a place where women are not considered for their true value. And yet in this country, forty-five men chose a woman to lead the football association.” And now for the first time in its 108-year history, FIFA can also benefit from a woman’s touch.
____________________________
Article of Arme Doornebal (28) published by Allafrica.com.
Arme Doornebal is a free lance journalist & fotograph from Neederlands. He is based in  Kampala.

lundi 25 juin 2012

The ambiguities of African nationalism*

 
In what sense is there in nationalist multiethnic African states? The leading edges of the anticolonial struggle in colonial Were nationalists or internationalists? Pan-Africanism is there a version of nationalism?
       Can we, in a multiethnic state in Africa, being a nationalist in the modern sense of the word, liberal, that is to say patriot, citizen when a nation is not yet properly built and that a national state embodying the well common and popular sovereignty is not built?
       Can we, conversely, be still nationalistic citizen when the nation is built and that a democratic and republican State embodying the sovereignty of the people and the general interest is based?
       This questioning is necessary and essential contradictions caused raised by political actions and the exercise of power of African nationalists.

The unifier became a divisor of the people.

       Many African political leaders pride themselves on being nationalists and grant international legitimacy to leaders of the cause of African peoples by claiming Pan-Africanists.
       But their nationalism and Pan-Africanism raise questions justified insofar as, in many cases, their practice of power conflicts with the titles they are assigned.
       With little regard for the common good and public interest, the nationalist yesterday turns out to be, soon conquered the power, a bitter ethno-nationalist who took the government for the exclusive benefit of his family and his ethnic group.
       The unifier is a divisor of the people who practice the social cleavage pits ethnic groups against each other.
       Throwing down the freedom that was the leitmotif of his anticolonial struggle, he becomes a tyrant who oppresses ruthlessly corrupt the people of his state and subjected to internal ethnic colonization.
       Under the clothing of uncompromising nationalist unfolds a dictator who does not shrink from the usurpation of power, mass murder and genocide.
       The Pan-Africanist who advocated federalism and international unity of African peoples becomes a xenophobic politician who advocates ethnic preference in his state.
       The internationalist socialist or liberal becomes a nationalist ethnic boundaries, a proponent of ethnic cleansing that stigmatizes the nationals of other African countries, which does not hesitate to close the borders of the state against African immigration, which means foreign to the mob at the least social protest, launching punitive expeditions against them and expel them en masse.

Socialism and liberalism are only masks.

       Socialism or liberalism are only masks under which the universalist ideology and values ​​are removed in favor of a form of government staff where the concentration of power in the hands of a political oligarchy dominant ethnic rivals with a frantic busyness characterized by conflicts of interest.
       This transformation of the African nationalist ethno-nationalist is it accidental or is it a necessary consequence of nationalism? In fact, far from being accidental, the conversion of the nationalist and pan-Africanist in corrupt and xenophobic tyrant appointed in the multiethnic state is the logical consequence of nationalism.
       In multiethnic African states, nationalism is necessarily changes in ethno-nationalism and xenophobia because, in the absence of a civic nation built on the repeal and surpassing the multitude of ethnic nationalities, nationalism refers to a false patriotism.

Nationalism
changes necessarily  in ethno-nationalism.

       Its content is not the common good nor the people but organically united ethnic identity. It actually refers to the priority given to ethnic particularities and customary loyalties on patriotism and loyalty to a state that would serve the public interest and would embody the sovereignty of the people united.
       When a truly independent national state Republican and Democratic does not yet exist, as is the case in most African multi-ethnic states, the nationalist leader is necessarily an ethno-nationalist who won power in favor of an ethnic group, a family, tribe or clan at the expense of all other ethnic components of the territorial state.
       Aware of this possible drift of nationalism in ethnicism, leaders of the anticolonial struggle fronts during colonization had adopted the liberal and revolutionary nationalism that comes from 1789 and were not, for a vast majority of nationalists but internationalists.
       Their struggle against colonialism stood under the sign of national unification citizen of African people in various states of self and of federalism under the sign of these multi-ethnic states in which the civic nation building project was the Cardinal.

How to build a nation when he crystallizes ethnic identities?

      
Pan-Africanism of the fathers of African independence was not the international version of ethnic nationalism but the version of supranational patriotism of nation states.
       One can be patriotic without being pan-Africanist in the sense that one has, as such, terminated ethnic nationalism and loyalty to customs prior to joining and being loyal to a democratic state that embodies the common good and the sovereignty of a nation of citizens.
       If Pan-Africanism presupposes patriotism, which is itself based on a State-National Democratic and Republican, then we are justified in doubting the Pan African nationalist elites proclaimed today.
       Their pan-Africanism is no content for their nationalism is indeed an ethno-nationalism which grows on the absence of a civic nation and a truly democratic state and national Republican.
       How, indeed, be the architect of a cosmopolitan African state founded on the values ​​of universality when one hypostasis, and crystallizes absolutises ethnic identities?
       How to be the builder of an international African citizen when you are the architect of the ethnic border closures? It is not uninteresting in this register to draw attention aroused by the discomfort in the French public, as part of a nation state, the conversion of a segment of the right Republican pro-European nationalist theses to the FN.

The Ivorian Popular Front (FPI) allegedly indulged in nationalist ethnic cleansing.

       It is instructive to turn our gaze on the emerging debate in the Republican right after the last French presidential elections on the issue of a renewal of its values ​​out of concern that emerged within the party, a needed updating, which would allow the French right to recover its universalist values ​​and essence Republican and patriotic.
       It is essential to remember that, in contrast, in Côte d'Ivoire, the Ivorian Popular Front claimed openly his nationalism during the 2010 presidential election, was engaging in ethnic cleansing, symptomatically received support from NF xenophobic French and refused at the end of the post-election crisis, to this day in 2012, to question his identity and xenophobic program.
In a state ethnically and culturally diverse nation without citizens, the content of nationalism is necessarily composed of the customary values ​​and loyalties of a particular ethnicity.
       The nationalist defends inevitably sectoral and specific ethnic interests at the expense of a civic nation formed by the integration of ethnic diversity in a Republican state.
       In an ethnically and culturally homogeneous state, by cons, nationalism is based on a content consisting of the entire people of the territorial state. The nationalist struggles to safeguard and guarantee the prerogatives and interests of ethnic people in its entirety.
       In a multiethnic state, by cons, nationalism gets stuck necessarily in ethnicism and particularities community when the various peoples that make up the population of the state are not yet organically united and when a civic nation is not yet constructed.
       When the civic nation is built in a multiethnic state, nationalism lapses. It gives way to the patriotism of State. Thus nationalism is highly suspect in multi-ethnic states without African nation. It always means a regression to the pre-political stage folds, identity conflicts and antagonisms that divide and rend all polyethnic communities.
_____________________________

• Article of Alexis Dieth published by Afrik.com on 25 June 2012.
• Dieth Alexis earned a Doctorate of Philosophy at the University of Poitiers in France. He served as professor in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, in Beirut, Lebanon and in Bordeaux, France.

dimanche 24 juin 2012

The African federal state: the only way out "by Theophile Obenga *

 
Rector of the University of Kinshasa, distinguished directors, distinguished professors and dear colleagues, dear students of the University Community, University of Kinshasa, Dear Friends,
        
I would like first of all about, express my deep gratitude to the Administrator Group CEO releases "The Potential", Mr Freddy Mulumba Kabuayi, Executive Director of the Congolese Institute for Development Research and Strategic Studies, Professor Francois Mukoka Nsenda, and the Director of the Centre for Policy Studies, and Director of the Centre for Research in the epistemology of social sciences and humanities.
        
I also hasten to recognize and greet so many eminent personalities and so many excellent academic colleagues, for their encouraging presence.
        
At the university community of the University of Kinshasa, directors headed by Mr. Rector, teachers and students, I extend my warmest greetings as a sign of high esteem and academic solidarity, always exemplary, edifying, enriching.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

        
It's always a pleasure to meet in Kinshasa, a city of light, but also, and more, soon city proud of its 12 million people who daily urban charm, vivacity cultural and intellectual strength of this great metropolis at the heart of Central Africa, along the mighty river that waters also Brazzaville.
        
What makes Kinshasa and Brazzaville appear to continue a single urban area bound by the same river, soon crossed by a modern bridge.
        
But the best is precisely the brotherhood and friendship that is shared between them and the Kinshasa Brazzaville, Brazzaville and have yet felt deeply in the tragedy of Mpila, March 4, 2012, having received from Kinshasa, both government and private sectors, support spontaneous multiform considerable weight. I would therefore allow me to assure recognition of Kinshasa from Brazzaville.

Ladies and Gentlemen,
         I was invited to present my latest book on “The Federal State of Black Africa: the only solution, published in Paris, L'Harmattan, 2012”.
It is thin and contains 71 pages 35 illustrations.
        
I would especially like, if you grant it me, primarily present in the argument, that is to say, the underlying motivation, urgency and topicality urgent need to collect the full extent of the issue and its extreme importance in this contemporary Black Africa, it is today and, especially, needless to say, tomorrow.
        
There is hope, vision can be described without hesitation as utopian utopia but, when it takes shape and materializes, necessarily becomes an event of unique historical significance.
        
Human beings live in utopia, imaginary, illusion and hope: animals, no or ever and ever.
        
Christianity, as we know, was born in a huge bloodbath, since it was for ever initial invasive than a utopia in the name of love of neighbor and love of God.
Where are we today?
        
The U.S. federation was in the beginning, there are nearly 300 years that political rather empty which was strongly opposed by the Southern secessionist states.
Where are we today?
        
The struggle of the ANC against the fortress of apartheid was estimated vain and fruitless by intellectuals brave and respected international reputation.

Where are we today?

        
The people who have no utopia have no future. The people who do not cultivate any utopia perish in the monotony.
        
Peoples whose elites do not carry the debate live on big ambitions almost sidelines otherwise outside of humanity.
        
Utopia is necessary: ​​the utopia, that is to say, the vision, perspective, foresight, future, depending on choice of major, overriding interests, standard bearers of truth, dignity, justice and prosperity.
        
The current African developments require the formulation or reformulation of African great utopias.
But what made African?
        
The facts are presented by current African experts, here and here and here and there, as facts which are only effects, but effects without causes. It's very bad epistemology, one that is to present facts by neglecting or deleting their real causes. Facts without question, this falls under what theory of knowledge?

But what do we see? What is said in the offices?

        
The facts that pinned here, across the African continent: - elections confusing, not transparent, not credible-conflict post-election ethnic - bad governance - corruption of the political and business climate - acute and chronic food crises - poverty, insecurity, suffering - pedagogical systems of misery - youth unemployment, widespread underemployment - deforestation undisciplined, irrational - not worrying lack of Africans on the stage of world affairs - notorious lack of modern scientific and technological achievements - pandemic diseases: AIDS, malaria, etc..
        
Those are the facts which negative the root causes remain deliberately obscure and vague, unanalyzable.
        
Here, however, positive developments: - sparkle and dynamism of African culture: arts, music, dance, painting, literature, etc.. -Increasing notoriety of African sport, especially football and inter-African competitions.

How to understand?

        
Africa is an issue. This question is at what is repeated daily, the persistent underdevelopment.
        
Africa is underdeveloped and the problem is the struggle against underdevelopment. The reality, heavily negative, shows that Africa can only perpetually struggling for centuries to come in under-development, for its hypothetical development.
        
Africa is an issue, that of its underdevelopment and the solution to underdevelopment lies in the development, saying that underdevelopment is developed, that is to say, the development of underdevelopment 's increases. It is clear that the "joint development" proposed in the speech of the break was only a deception more.
        
However, nothing was wanting to Africa - humanitarian aid daily - the price paid advice of experts in international monetary institutions - bilateral and multilateral continually diversified - the partnership all backgrounds, all-round - the happy programs Structural Adjustment - well thought out codes of good governance in foreign injunction - the North-South dialogue; technology transfer; literacy campaigns ephemeral - the laws and commissions fight against corruption and illicit enrichment, etc..
        
Africa and still wails in underdevelopment, become chronic lasting, with unjust debts added to the already meager state revenues, not to mention the precarious terms of trade.
        
However, upon reflection, even the term "development" is a ruse for the confinement of West Africa in the underdevelopment and cash crops.
        
Countries that do develop by building each day hospitals, schools, stadiums, dams, airports, railways, highways, laboratories and high tech industries, almost never does pronounce the term "development ".
        
Incidentally, how many times the U.S. president he pronounced the words: "Development of USA", while the U.S. are developing every day, guided by the ambitious concept of undisputed leadership in the world.

Countries that are developing every day do not make use of diarrheal word "development".

        
The West was able to convince the African intelligentsia that the issue of development is the central issue, then we know, also, that Africa can not develop fully across the state nation, because many negative facts, and that, despite the aid and cooperation, despite the moral and ethical governance.
        
Which means, clearly, and very clearly, that Africa must remain forever in the underdevelopment or quasi-development to ensure the development of the West by providing free almost all the raw materials West desperately needs for its development, its progress, its power, his happiness.
        
The pumping of Africa by the West installs here underdevelopment, and creates, there, the development. The current African nation-state can not stop pumping of Africa by the West. This continuous pumping means that the West has no interest that black Africa is free and grows.
        
The root cause of underdevelopment of black Africa is never the West, since the thirteenth century, through the Atlantic slave trade, slavery, colonization, domination, apartheid, neo- colonization, with structures of inequality and unsustainable historically as the "France-Africa".
        
That totals nearly 10 centuries of misfortune. If Africa has control of its mineral resources, its forests, its oil, its maritime waters, its arable land, while the West is inevitably weakened. So we have, for the salvation of the West and the dominance of "Wretched of the Earth" (Frantz Fanon) that Black Africa is still enslaved, infantilized, néocolonisée, underdeveloped.
        
The issue of Africa is not the underdevelopment or development but, clearly, the issue of power relations in the contemporary world.

Earthen pot against iron pot: who wins, who dominates, who leads, who makes the law?

        
Of earthen pot, China became iron pot. And respect is there. And one sign nuclear agreements.
        
Of earthen pot, India became iron pot. And the admiration is there. And one sign of nuclear granted.
        
The emergence, if desired, if proclaimed, it's just become iron pot. That's it. As the Other does not respect your dignity, you are only clay pot.
        
All geopolitical and geostrategic contemporary world shows that nations, states, peoples have changed scale: from clay pots, they all want to become iron pots, and that is globalization, as happening before our eyes. The African nation-state current must scale and blend in the federal state constitutionally African continent.
        
For the weak, the poor, the weak, the timid, the balkanized are but earthen pots, with their governments, national assemblies, their democratic institutions, their economies faltering, their low level of science and technology, their ardor inflamed exegetical.
        
The issue of African development is not, but the creation of an African political power on a continental scale.
It takes locomotives African nation states, that is to say that leaders for grand pan-African vision what the Federal State of Africa on a continental scale. It's never too early.
        
It's never too early to write the history of Africa by Africans in Africa.
        
It's never too early to write the history of Africa by Africans in Africa in a world so complex and difficult in perpetual political crisis, financial, economic, moral and spiritual.
        
In the book The Federal State of Black Africa: the only way out, I tried, after DuBois, Marcus Garvey, Kwame Nkrumah, Lumumba, Cheikh Anta Diop, to outline in some detail and outlines the political, energy economic, technical, industrial, communicational, etc.. of the African continental power that will ensure the final liberation of African peoples.
        
Africa is huge, geographically large and demographically. It needs large and strong ambitions. The draft "Perpetual Peace" Kant's is still so far out of reach of today's world. We need to update the Pan-Africanism. The contemporary world is what it is: sharing to all humanity the world's wealth is not for tomorrow.
         Rich countries refuse categorically to welcome and to relieve the misery of the world.
        
So, therefore, and unambiguous, the Federal State of Africa remains the only way, for today and tomorrow. Everything must move and move towards this historic outcome.

A new African consciousness.

        
This new African consciousness, before the new demands of life and survival, is the work of all forces in Africa: Writers, writers, and actresses, poets, who must leave the description of the facts colonial and postcolonial now to address the major themes of the new Africa;
Musicians, artists, athletes, filmmakers, fashion designers, model makers, who must unravel the mysteries, mobilize forces, energies, depending on the collective mindset of the present and the future. Intellectuals, scholars, thinkers, executives, booksellers, librarians, archivists, museum professionals, men and women of the churches, which should dispel ignorance, spread knowledge, innovate and invent other discourses whose dynamics transcend agreed to open new perspectives more African solidarity,. Politicians, leaders of associations, political party leaders, journalists and witnesses involved as social actors objectives, which should raise the fundamental interests of the African people over the contingencies and accessories,. Industrialists, bankers, economists, lawyers, merchants, military men and business women, farmers, workers, urban, rural, builders, architects, engineers, inventors, doctors, pharmacists, youth, adults, women, men, who must always imagine and increase creativity and African continental scale.

The construction of a new Africa.

        
The construction of a new Africa through the African federal state and requires a general mobilization of all energies for African welfare, good life, the happiness of all African people.
        
This is the African initiative in the contemporary world which is summarized in the choice of solidarity, the choice of the African power in a federal state. The choice of the political kingdom is to be made before the diagrams economists, for the advent of "tomorrow's Africa" ​​(Edem Kodjo).
        
So there will be more post-election conflict, policies of national reconciliation, let alone neo-Western military interventions; neocolonial more networks, more looting of raw materials, addition of "France-Africa": any relinquishes the accessory room for the essentials.
        
There will be only the basics: building a humanity of justice, equality, fraternity and progress for peace and welfare of the human family.
        
Is it not possible to create a chain with pan-African Union headquarters in Kinshasa whose main purpose would be to examine and promote the timing of the federal state contained in the Federal State of Black Africa: the only way out?

        
Thank you, Ladies and Gentlemen, Friends, heart full of gratitude.
_____________________________________

*Speech in Kinshasa, 22 June 2012 published by the daily "The Potential".

         *
Obenga Theophilus Joseph Mwene Ndzalé was born February 2, 1936 at Mbaya in Congo - Brazzaville. After his primary and secondary education in Brazzaville, he completed graduate studies at the Universities of Bordeaux, Paris-Sorbonne University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA), Geneva in Switzerland and then at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes in Paris, at the Institute of Human Palaeontology and the College de France in Paris.
        
He is Doctor of Arts degree from the University of Montpellier in France. Poet, philosopher, historian, linguist, scholar Professor Senegalese Egyptologist Cheikh Anta Diop *, philosopher, poet and politician. Director of the Ecole Normale Supérieure de Brazzaville,          He begins by following a career as a researcher and professor at the University Marien N'Gouabi in Brazzaville.
         He was the first Director General of the International Center of Bantu Civilizations (CICI.BA.). He was minister in the governments of Joachim Yhombi-Opango (1977-1979) and Pascal Lissouba (1992-1997).
         In 1999 he became Director of Studies Department of African Civilizations at the University of California (USA) and co-editor of the Journal of Egyptology and African Civilizations "Ankh". He is author of an abundant work.

jeudi 21 juin 2012

Gabon / Jamaica: Bob Marley to Pascaline Bongo: "What you're ugly?"

 
In a documentary film about the Jamaican singer Bob Marley released in France June 13, 2012, Ken MacDonald, director of the famous film "The Last King of Scotland" about Ugandan dictator Idi Amin Dada, brings alive the Reggae star through the testimony of a dozen characters, among which former girlfriends.
        
President Omar Bongo Odinga official visit to the United States with her daughter Pascaline, then aged 23. She begs him to go to a concert of his idol Bob Marley is obviously loving it. At the end of the concert, she slips into the Rasta Man​​'s lodge, but their story of unrequited love ends badly for the Gabonese president's daughter.
"What you're ugly! "Said Bob Marley right now, time for one photo souvenir together.
        
In 1979, at age 34, the famous Jamaican musician in search of her African roots is visiting missed in Gabon. It is already known and appreciated in Africa for his hits "No Woman, No Cry" and "Exodus Kaya."
        
During his stay in Libreville, President Bongo avenges his eldest daughter by refusing to Bob Marley.
       
At 56 years, Bongo says Pascale and this unfortunate episode in front of the camera of the filmmaker: "It's because I had relaxed hair."
        
His mother Patience Dabany, whose real name is Josephine Nkama (born 1944) did not she had avenged herself by becoming a singing star after being scorned and abandoned by her husband Omar Bongo Odinga after 18 years of marriage ?

mercredi 20 juin 2012

Democratic Republic of Congo: Why so much poverty? *

 
But what is poverty?

      
It is no longer a mystery as to enter into a welfare society, economists also employ the concept of poverty. It strikes a community globally prosperous or not, poverty is a scourge to be fought and eradicated because it threatens the most essential aspects of human life: moral values, human dignity.
      
More than five decades after its accession to international sovereignty, it would seem that the DRC is still poor. It is fitting to question the reality that is the persistence of poverty in a country potentially provided by natural resources.
But what is poverty? There is no single definition of poverty.    Some give a definition in absolute terms: Thus, the poor are people whose resources would remain below a certain threshold (set in monetary unit). This is the case of the World Bank which sets the threshold of "absolute" poverty at $ 1 per day.
      
No one is unaware that poverty in the DRC is not a myth. To be persuaded it is sufficient to note the inability of a majority of the Congolese people to meet food needs, inability to access the needs of health, schooling, decent housing, etc..
All these facets of poverty are observable both in urban and rural areas.

Poverty in DRC affects all occupational categories.

      
Poverty in Congolese society is also perceptible social phenomena that reflect a growing social crisis. The most convincing is probably child prostitution.
      
In its 2011 annual report on the Human Development Index (HDI), UNDP estimated at over 71% of Congolese live on less than a dollar per person per day. In other words, the poverty situation in the DRC is massive poverty that affects all socio-professional categories.
      
In addition, according to UNDP there is a critical evolution of per capita income. It fell by over 15% in real terms between 1995 and 2007 (before the global crisis), a decrease of about 1.4% annually over this period, while at the same time, people believe annually at a rate of at least 2.8%. These statistics are alarming.

In 2010, DRC ranked 181st out of 183 countries in
"Doing Business" of the World Bank.

      
What explains the constancy of poverty in the DRC? The above statistics reflect poor governance. The Mobutu years have made the first descent into the DRC. Under this regime, the country has experienced only inflation, budget deficits and public debt that have been growing, but also the installation of the corruption that has now reached record levels, and in this all sectors of the national economy.
       During these years, the state has shone in irrationality, which took effect as a waste of resources, the allocation of these resources for political purposes, etc..
      
In the post-Mobutu, the country has continued its travel in a political and economic instability, but also the country still problems of economic governance.
      
These are expressed in terms of deleterious environmental affairs. To this end, the Doing Business ranking (2010) World Bank ease of doing business in the DRC placed it 181st out of 183 countries.
      
In 2011, the DRC had occupied the 176th position. In the same vein, the indicator of "Wall Street Journal / Heritage," which measures economic freedom in the world placed the DRC at the 172nd position on 175 countries in 2011.
       These indicators show how business practice is difficult for a contractor. However, the reduction of poverty through the development of entrepreneurship.

The curse of natural resources.

      
Why now after the democratization of the DRC, the Congolese people do not always enjoy fully their resources?
The answer is the resource curse.
       The current world order is marked by the interplay of interests of great powers who, desperate to preserve their interests, promote the deepening misery of the Congolese. The Congolese are victims of the richness of their basement.
       The DRC is a country immensely long in natural resources: over 80 million farmland only 10% are highlighted, of important mineral resources (diamonds, coltan, tungsten, tin, etc.. ), the second lung of the planet after the Amazon, the second supply of fresh water worldwide. Let us add that the country has a large hydropower potential (53% in Africa and 13.5% in the World).

Sixth most corrupt country in Africa.

      
Unfortunately the people of the DRC do not benefit from these riches. Its economy is handicapped by the ongoing armed conflict and corruption levels highest in the world to believe of Transparency International, which for 2011 placed the DRC in 6th place of the most corrupt countries in Africa.
      
In this context, success in business depends on close relationships between business and power, favoritism in the distribution of legal permits, government grants, tax breaks, etc.. It is a real "crony capitalism" for close to power, outside the rule of law.
      
This system has prevented access to many of the formal sector: much of the labor force has been forced to turn to the informal. The ILO estimates that over 72% of the workforce Congolese evolving in the informal sector so much that it became the leading sector for job creation in our country. But in the informal sector, the economic "development" is strongly constrained.
      
Given the above, it turns out that the DRC is a poor country, and that after 52 years of independence. The Congolese government must promote good governance and the rule of law, conditions for the Congolese out of this unfortunate reality of poverty.
___________________________

*
Article of Kambamba Darly, an economist at the University of Kinshasa, appeared in "A Free World" of 20 June 2012.

lundi 18 juin 2012

Guatemala / Switzerland: Guatemala's police archives in Swiss coffers.

 
Swiss coffers does not only provide security money of the World.

         Often accused the Swiss banks to hide money from humanity in its coffers. It also appears that they may also harbor "under the seal of secrecy,"
Archives and confidential documents it is difficult to keep in states politically uncertain.
         The retired general Otto Perez Molina was elected President of the Republic of Guatemala November 6, 2011.
Proponent of "hard hand policy,"
it is the first soldier to return to power since the end of the Civil War (1960-1996). He is among the men who negotiated and signed peace agreements.
         But, however he is accused of violations of human rights during the civil war.
         So her first reaction when he came to power is to try to slow the process of historical reparation.

80 million documents rotting in the basement of the Police.

         While the inspectors were looking for explosives in the old police center in the heart of Guatemala City, they come across more than 80 million documents wet, gnawed by rats and fungi. Stacked, they would have formed 8 Km wall.
         Awesome! June 5, 2005, after formally denied their existence, the national police and saw arise the archives of its activities during the civil war. A treasure trove for historical justice, a threat to the minions of dictators.
         Over 200,000 Guatemalans were killed and 45,000 missing in this civil war, which lasted from 1960 to 1996, 93% of victims are attributed to government forces (police, national army, and paramilitary groups), according to the inquiry. If Guatemala is politically stable, it remains one of the worst cut-throat of humanity.
         With 17 murders per day, it is more dangerous to live in Guatemala City in Baghdad. This is a consequence of the peace accords in 1996 that decided to reduce two-thirds of the army and disband the national police.
         A whole generation of men who had done nothing else but the police ended up chasing both idle and over-armed. They therefore hired by Narcos traveling between Colombia and Mexico through Guatemala with total impunity, with 97% of murders have never been elucidated.
         It is revealing that a fire has ever destroyed the archives timely, tangible evidence of police terror. Probably because the situation started to justice is a utopia in which nobody believes in this country.
Two police officers decorated for removal of the student Fernando Garcia.
         "The government said that these piles of papers were worthless, it was only administrative notes,"
says attorney for human rights Manuel Vasquez. This is partly true. In the minutes that endless scribbling agents of the order, never found a clear command to execute or kidnap.
         But administrative jargon ends by dint of crossing dates, locations and license plate numbers of cars, by revealing his grisly secret.
         On 18 February 1984, two police officers remove the student Fernando Garcia. They are distinguished for this act, as the student activist was gone forever. This was after a trial based on the archives that the two performers were sentenced to 40 years in prison in 2012.
         "It's the little policemen who were convicted, their implication was clear. It was like a pilot trial. Subsequently, we will attempt to determine the vertices of the hierarchy, "
Manuel Vasquez hopes.

Three Crown attorneys fees for processing millions of documents!

         Where to start when the victims are hundreds of thousands, archival documents to strip for three million by Crown prosecutors in human rights?
         It only remains to victims' families only one solution: to mobilize lawyers and NGOs to open investigations. Petrified by the fear of facing the unknown, even in families with money hardly dare venture to complain.
         So far only four trials have been initiated. Even after forty years, the population remains suspicious vis-à-vis this murderous policy and justice virtually nonexistent. Guatemalans reluctant vis-à-vis the call to give his DNA to identify free the skeletons exhumed from mass graves regularly.
         In 2008 after his election as President of the Republic, Alvaro Colom promised "security with intelligence."
"Certainly he has not met his promises, but did not prevent justice,"
says the lawyer Maynor Alvarado Estuardo Galeano.
         The issue of police records is supportive. Hundred and fifty officers spend their time cleaning them page by page, to sort, read them and store them. A mammoth task for apprentices sleuths that requires an annual budget of one million dollars. In one year, they were able to scan 12 million documents on 80 million. Guatemala has not paid a single Quetzal, are Sweden, the Netherlands, Germany, the U.S. and UN funding this work.
         The Helvetic Confederation takes care of the logistical support of the project since 2006. A copy called "safety" of each document is scanned archives in Bern sent quarterly to be kept for life insurance in the Federal Archives. They serve as proof of truth if a dictatorial government were to destroy the originals.
         Prudence of good quality for a people without justice for 52 years.

jeudi 14 juin 2012

Sweden: "The king whore" instead of "The King of Sweden".

 
Counterfeit money to ridicule the monarch.

       For several days traveling in Sweden, the false coin with a crown (0.11 euro) imprinted iconoclastic "Carl XVI Gustaf, King Our Shit" around the profile of Royal.
      
On the real room with a crown, the profile of the king is surrounded by the words "King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden."
      
"I was surprised, to put it politely," said a resident of Malmö (southern Sweden), David Rosenlund, in possession of a counterfeit part and quoted by the online edition of the daily Expressen.
      
Karin Mattsson, a resident of Piteaa, north of the country, are thought twice: "My first reaction was that I could not see," she told local daily, Piteaa-Tidningen.
      
The director of the National Museum of Economy, Ian Wiséhn, said the counterfeiter has a lot of effort to ensure that its parts are sufficiently similar and that people deceive themselves: "One must be very clever (... ) it is not easy, "he told the Swedish news agency TT.

Carl XVI Gustaf – The reluctant monarch ("Den Motvillige Monarken")

       King Carl XVI Gustaf, 66 years old, ascended the throne in 1973 married Queen Silvia in 1976. In the 90s, he would have had an affair with the Métis Swedish-Nigerian singer of the Army of Lovers, Camilla Henemark (48 years).
      
It is said that when the monarch told him: "You have nothing to lose," she reportedly replied: "But I'll be hated by all the fanatics of Silvia, and which constitute the whole of Sweden, including myself and my mother, "reports the newspaper Expressen.
      
This is what emerges from the unauthorized biography published in 2010 by three reporters: Tove Meyer, Deanne Rauscher and Thomas Sjöberg.
      
In this scathing 388-page report entitled "Den Motvilge Monarken (Monarch spite of himself)" are described decadent parties, clubs and of course the shady adulterous affair with Camilla Henemark pulpy.
      
Interviewed by journalists, several royal mistresses Used reported sexual relations with the monarch, sometimes several at a time.

"For Sweden, in our time" motto of HM Carl XVI Gustaf.

       In this book, King Carl XVI Gustaf is described as a weak king, intellectually somewhat in line with the royal office to which he was called to the death of his grandfather in 1973.
      
Youngest of five children of Prince Gustaf Adolf and Princess Sybilla, who hardly knew his father - who died in a plane crash while his son was 9 months old, Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden has drawn jeers and caution the media because of his dyslexia, a problem long suspected, particularly after the journalists had noticed that he had misspelled his name on the document of his accession on september 19, 1973.
      
Regarding the allegations contained in this biography, the monarch said simply that the facts "to back a long time" - he does not deny!
      
Noting that he and his family would "turn the page", he asked some peace for his people: "because we have obligations and that we work almost every day."
       One of three journalists, authors of this book has lost his job.
      
Bestseller in Sweden, 20,000 copies of the first printing were sold out within hours.

mercredi 13 juin 2012

Spain: Five hundred years of missed opportunities .*

The current banking crisis has its roots in anti-economic thinking that dominates in the country since the Reconquista and the discovery of America, and who did not develop. A mindset which accession to the European Union in 1986 did not change.

The model uneconomic Spanish.


        What is happening in Spain? Under the mandate of Prime Minister José María Aznar (1996-2004), the country was still seen a model pupil of the EU's growth.
       European structural funds flowed into the fourth largest economy in the euro area up to 150 billion euros.
       But they are not thriving businesses that are out of the ground on poor soils of Andalusia and Castile, but wasteful investment projects whose remains are now also the dilapidated castles of the time of the Cid.
       Each other and are the expression of a social model that characterizes uneconomic Spain for half a century.
       Spain has experienced the modern era in voluntary isolation that ended only in the 1960s, when the dictator Francisco Franco opened the country to tourism. Spain is coming late and laboriously in modernity, "agitated and squeezed like a guest who arrives at a final banquet and trying as best he can to catch what he missed," wrote Juan Goytisolo in 1969 in an essay which continues today, "Spain and the Spaniards."
       With the same eagerness that Spain began twenty years later, to spend the windfall in the form of EU structural funds.       
        But instead of investing in a productive society, she wanted to be part of Europe as soon as possible and to modernize, which meant mostly say look modern.
       The money was used wisely at first, but later with a rush fueled by ultra-liberal land policy of José María Aznar.

Ruinous latifundias,

       The triumphant success of the anti-economism, however, had started as early as 1492. At the time, Spain had not only discovered America, but had also won the last remnant of Arab rule in Granada, before hunting the country's Jews and the Moors in the following centuries. However, the two communities held the reins of handicrafts and trade.
       While the Christian gentleman, he had a horror of the work: all work was prohibited under a strange code of honor and he saw that divine mission in the military.
       The wealth of the colonies slipped through the fingers of the Spaniards as liquid gold. Central Europe was enriched with Inca gold while the Spanish nobility rested passively on the income of ruinous latifundia.
       For three centuries, all that was akin to a productive activity was prosecuted for heresy by the Inquisition. Anyone who ventured to do research, reading or tinkering was in danger of ending up on the stake.
       On disappearance of the Inquisition, the torch of immobility was taken over by Spanish Catholicism.
       The secularization of the country itself has failed to break through the shell. It was only in the Basque Country and Catalonia that has emerged from industrial sites. It certainly created transport links, but while the impeding.
       Thus, there was a rail network, but the gauge was not the same as in France for not too close to Europe. Europe stops at the Pyrenees, they said now.

Powerful anarchist movement.

       It was not until the nineteenth century to see the emergence of a bourgeoisie shy dynamic mercantile politicized. Spain is the only country in the world to have seen the emergence of a powerful anarchist movement. It now shines through indignant at the Puerta del Sol in Madrid, who are united by anti-capitalist revolt but who fail to federate.
       Anarchism has triumphed in the 1930s before being crushed by Franco's coup and during the Civil War. Franco Spain has sharply reduced the time of the Inquisition.
       To calm reign, he deliberately promoted the status quo in the aftermath of his victory. The number of owners has exploded thanks to the housing and financial aid. In doing so, he laid the foundation stone of the speculative boom that was to come later.
       If she has brilliantly overcome the political upheaval that occurred at the end of the dictatorship in 1975 and has adopted a liberal society, Spain has however remained blocked at the time of the late Middle Ages economically.
       Number of Spanish newspapers and blogs today are characterized by self-serving rhetoric and partisan bickering. Parochialism forbidden to Castile or Andalusia model to take on the Basque Country and Catalonia, both regions, however, more productive and, conversely, will stubbornly refuse to share their expertise with the rest the country.

Tear down the barrier of the Pyrenees.

       For Spaniards, Juan Goytisolo writes, it is less to draw material gain as a task to get involved personally. But the Anglo-Saxon markets, governed by the cold efficiency Protestant, do not leave time for such a strategy to bear fruit on a commercial level. Lack of funds, the changes needed to rebuild the education system and research by focusing on the practice are impossible today.
       As long as Europe does not decide to tear down the barrier of the Pyrenees by releasing targeted assistance for the modernization of the economy and education, Spain will be forced to take refuge in one of his traits character who, according to Juan Goytisolo, has always hindered his ascension: his lack of ambition.
The Spanish know endure a crisis. They did it for 500 years.
_______________________________________
 
*Article published on 1 June 2012 in Munich Süddeutsche Zeitunge by Sebastien Scoepp.