mardi 22 février 2011

The second fatwa against an Arab head of state.


Mo'ammar Gaddafi does escape the Fatwa?

On 21 February 2011, the influential Muslim theologian, Sheik Youssef al-Qaradawi, issued a fatwa calling on Al-Jazeera the Libyan army to assassinate Muammar Gaddafi. This Qatari theologian of Egyptian origin also asked the army "not to obey the one who ordered him to strike his own people". Since February 17, 2011, demonstrations against President Gaddafi Mo'ammar are violently drowned in blood. The International Federation of Human Rights (FIDH) suggests a balance of 300 to 400 dead since the start of the challenge while the news channel Al-Jazeera has announced more than 500 victims on 8th day of revolt.
Born in 1926, Youssef Al-Qaradawi is a Sunni Muslim scholar of Qatari origin. He is president of the International Union of Muslim Scholars (Ulema) and the European Council for Fatwa and Research.
Expelled from Egypt by President Gamal Abdel Nasser (1918-1970), he chaired the Friday prayer for the first time in Egyptian territory for 30 years on Tahrir Square in Cairo February 18, 2011.

The spectacular performance of the fatwa against President Anwar El-Sadat.

Egyptian President Anwar El-Sadat (1918-1981), Nobel Peace Prize 1978, was the most protected man in the World. When he plunged into the pool, provided cameras, six colossi overtrained dived along with him. Yet it took only a few seconds to the Muslim Brotherhood, running the Fatwa of Imam blind Sheikh Omar Abdel-Rahman (imprisoned in the U.S. since 1995) to liquidate at a military parade in Cairo on camera worldwide. The Islamists have accused him of such signed the first peace treaty between Israel and Egypt.
His direct executor, Lieutenant Khalid al-Islambouli hanged April 15, 1982 was declared "Shahid / martry" by Iran, where in each major city, at least one street named after him!

dimanche 20 février 2011

Sierra Leone: Foday Sankoh, the African nightmare!



The lumumbist trauma.

On November 21, 1960, young Ghanaians and Sierra Leoneans helmets have received a precise order of the President Francis Kwame Nkrumah (1909-1972): to protect the Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba, risking their own lives under the watchful eye of A. Djim, Ambassador of Ghana.
Indeed, Colonel Joseph-Desire Mobutu, the Chief of Staff of the Congolese National Army, the Foreign Minister Justin-Marie Bomboko Nendaka and Victor Nendaka (1923-2002), Chief of the national security and the American Larry Devlin (1922-2008), chief of CIA covert operations in Leopoldville (Kinshasa) had decided to declare the ambassador of Ghana "persona non grata."
The Ghanaian government rejected the injunction. President F. Kwame Nkrumah had simply refused to accept the Congolese envoy in Accra and to read the letter to his Congolese counterpart, Joseph Kasavubu (1910-1969) ordered him to withdraw his ambassador in Leopoldville.
Lieutenant Colonel Justin Kokolo Longo (1913-1960) commander of the camp Leopoldville with a contingent of soldiers was sent to the Embassy of Ghana to expel him forcibly.
They were met by a barrage of Ghanaian peacekeepers and Sierra Leonean. Colonel Joseph-Desire Mobutu (1930-1997) ordered to encircle the Embassy of Ghana and shoot on sight anything that moved!
Before strengthening Congolese troops and mortar fire intensified, the Ghanaian embassy was reinforced by Tunisian peacekeepers. The battle lasted all night and several people dead including Lieutenant-Colonel Justin Kokolo Longo, the former highest-ranking public Congolese Force!
The rest just becomes dramatic for Lumumba and the Congo especially for young Ghanaian and Sierra Leoneans peacekeepers, including a young man of 23 named Foday Sankoh.
They are removed unceremoniously after the sudden death of Lumumba January 17, 1961.

Foday Sankoh Saybana is his name!

He was born October 17, 1937 into a poor family Masang Mayoso in Tonkolili District in southern Sierra Leone. Lack of means, his education did not go beyond primary school much, so he enlisted in the British colonial army.
Until the independence of his country, Sierra Leone, April 27, 1961, he served as a corporal in the British Army since 1956.
In 1960, he was part of the quota "Ghanaian" UN in Congo. Poured into the new Sierra Leonean army, he had distinguished and even took part in the coup that brought to power President Siaka Probyn Stevens (1905-1988).
From 1971, he languished for six years in prison Pademba Road in Freetown for his involvement in a plot to overthrow President Siaka Stevens. Upon his release from prison, he worked as a roving photographer while dreaming of setting up a revolutionary organization. His mythical hero is called Bai Bureh Kebalai (1840-1908), who rebelled against the British in the nineteenth century.
In the '80s, he joined the training camps of Colonel Gaddafi in Libya Mo'ammar. There he became friends with the Liberian Charles Taylor. In 1989, he founded the Revolutionary United Front (RUF). On 23 March 1991, the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) that runs from the Sierra Leonean bush an ultimatum to President Joseph Saidu Momoh (1937-2003) to BBC radio from the Headquarters of the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) of Charles Taylor.

The outbreak of a bloody epic!

In April 1991, the big night! Seconded by Charles Taylor, Liberia's new president (from 1997), here at the head of an army of going barefoot incorporating many child soldiers. Mystical guru, he has this incredible fascination troupe. He claims to have visions, punctuates his statements with references religious claims of supernatural powers.
Children will be cannon fodder privileged Ruf. Many are idle and miserable villages in Sierra Leone. To convince them, Foday Sankoh recruiters forced to kill the first mother and father, proven strategy of terror around the world to shape the juvenile psychology. The girls are resting warriors.
His watchwords are wild and direct: in "Operation Burn House (Burn the house)" after "Operation No Living Thing (No living thing)" and "Operation Pay Yourself (Do you pay on beast).
"His soldiers (often young children drugged) drew lots of civilian men, women and children of all ages, and cut off their members with machetes: hands, feet, ears, nose ...Sankoh and boasted that more than 4,000 penguins that he peopled his country than the 150,000 dead, including his militia depopulation, "says Celestin Monga.
Prior to amputate their civilian victims with machetes, the guerrillas of the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) asking them simply: "Short or long sleeves" to see if they want to be mutilated at the wrist or shoulder!
The atrocities are accompanied by systematic rape. According to observers and NGO leaders, women pay the heaviest price for his dirty war. In three refugee camps in Freetown, Port Loko and Kenema, a humanitarian organization in Boston found that more than 9 out of 10 women interviewed reported having summers raped, beaten, forced into marriage or sexual slavery.
Until March 1996 with the help of Charles Taylor, the main cause of the Civil War and later president-elect of Liberia, it ignites and blood Sierra Leone in turn led by Captain Valentine Strasser and Brigadier Julius Maada Bio after the overthrow of General Joseph Saidu Momoh in April 1992.
On 15 March 1996, multiparty presidential elections lead to victory of Ahmad Tejan Kabbah, candidate of the Popular Party of Sierra Leone. Despite cease-fire proclaimed March 17, 1996, Foday Sankoh rejects election results and after the negotiations of March 25, 1996, he took refuge in Ivory Coast and Nigeria. On May 25, 1997, President Kabbah was overthrown by the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council led by Commander John Paul Koroma.
Nine months, he was restored to power by ECOMOG forces. Sentenced to death in absentia by the regime of Ahmad Tejan Kabbaj in November 1998, Sankoh was arrested and imprisoned in Conakry and Freetown. In November 1998, his supporters claiming among other things his release resumed hostilities and fighting fiercely against the elements of the Intervention Force West African (ECOMOG) that support the Civil Defense Forces (CDF) of President Ahmad Tejan Kabbaj.
In January 1999, the fighting reached the capital Freetown and are partially burned many civilian casualties (between 6,000 and 10,000 victims).
A peace agreement is signed in Lomé on 7 July 1999 between the RUF and the government of Ahmad Tejan Kabbaj under the aegis of the UN.
He was rehabilitated despite the atrocities committed by his fighters on civilians and appointed the President of the Commission of strategic resource management in the country, reconstruction and development and vice president of Sierra Leone.
To everyone's surprise, Mr. Sankoh is serious about his job and requires a review of all relevant licenses issued and control of new negotiations with foreign companies. Obviously, he preaches in the desert that he created around him with the killings: no senior official in Freetown is not involved in his commission and the United Nations Mission for Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) is entirely hostile to him.  
Meanwhile, the Security Council decides to increase troops and UN peacekeepers to deploy three battalions to take control of the diamond region. We are moving toward a force of 13,000 soldiers. The verbal escalation that will follow between Mr. Sankoh and Mr. Kofi Annan is an astonishing virulence for a UN secretary general.  
In fall 1999, he plunges back into the bush. He took the opportunity to marry Fatou, a young Senegalese lawyer.
His troops took 500 peacekeepers hostage of Zambian origin, which causes the intervention of British troops. 
They tried unsuccessfully to invade neighboring Guinea by supporting the Rally of Democratic Forces of Guinea (RFDG). In December 2000, for a few days, they besiege the towns of Gueckedou and Kissidougou (Guinea) before being repelled by the Guinean army. On 2 March 2002, Sankoh is being tried for the murder of nineteen demonstrators killed outside his home in Freetown in May 2000 and then detained.
On 4th March 2002, he was indicted for "murder, rape, sexual slavery, acts of terror" committed during the civil war (1991-2001) by the UN Special Court for Sierra Leone (sitting in the island of Bonthe off Sierra Leone).
For ten years, his war has claimed between 100,000 and 200,000 deaths!

 The end of a psychopathic monster.

On 29 July 2003 at 22h40 GMT, a man of 66 years old and unkempt appearance repulsive died from a stroke in hospital Choithram of Freetown, where he was under observation for six weeks.
Arrested in Freetown by the International Criminal Tribunal May 17, 2000 to be tried for "murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation, imprisonment, torture, rape, sexual slavery, persecution on political, religious or ethnic. An indictment of the historical process that is thrilling", he was locked up in jail for three years. Since the beginning of July he was in a catatonic state, requiring psychiatric care, but no country wanted to receive as part of an evacuation, were it only for a partial treatment, reports BBC.
"Foday Sankoy enjoyed the peaceful end that he denied to so many others. ...His death will not prevent the prosecution to seek the evidence in other trials, involvement in harmful activities that have left a legacy of horror in the minds and memories of those who survive him, "concludes Desmond de Silva, the Attorney-General's Special Court for Sierra Leone.
His body buried in Magburaka in Tonkolili district 200 kilometers from Freetown disappears from his grave a few days later. He was burned after being exhumed by the version of the local police? Or his body had been used to make amulets to boost its faithful!
This terrible war has been partially described in the excellent movie "Blood Diamond" in 2006 by Edward Zwick.

samedi 19 février 2011

Joachim Barbosa: first «Black», member of the Brazilian Supreme Court of Justice since 1829.



Unjust repaired after 130 years of republican history.

On 25 June 2003 in Brasilia runs an event without precedent in the history of Brazil. During a solemn ceremony attended by Minister of Justice, Marcio Thomaz Bastos three new judges take oath before assuming their duties at the Federal Supreme Court of Brazil.
One of three said with emotion: "I imagine how many people, how many blacks will feel represented by my person! This is a huge responsibility». «I see this as an act of great importance to society that signals the end of some visible and invisible barriers ». He has dark skin and called Joaquim Benedito Barbosa Gomes.
In Brazil, 45% of the 173 million people consider themselves black. Behind the colorful and variegated proud of Brazil lies a different reality. When you descends the social ladder, as skin color "dark." Here black is the color of despair. Ebony skins are much more difficulties than whites and mestizos to access to education, health, housing and employment.
The appointment of the black singer Gilberto Passos Gil Monteiro, in January 2003 as Minister of Culture was a big step but not enough given its immense popularity. This rather recalls the transition from footballer Edison Arantes do Nascimento, aka Pele, Ministry of Sports from 1995 to 1998.
President Luis Ignacio Lula Da Silva (2003-2011), lover of Africa had to go further with the appointment Benedito Barbosa Gomes Joachim. In the history of the Supreme Court of Brazil, there were two colored: «A fair complexion», Pedro Augusto Carneiro Lessa (1859-1921), Minister of Justice of the Supreme Court from 1907 until his death July 25, 1921 and "dark mulatto», Hermenegildo de Barros Rodrigues (1866-1955), Chairman of the Supreme Tribunal of Justice of Brazil from 1919 until his retirement in 1937. Coincidentally, both were born in Minas Gerais.

The sinuous path of the son of Mason Paracuta.

Son of a bricklayer, born in 1955 in the village of Paracatu, Minas Gerais, he attended primary school Dom Serafim Gomes Garden. At 16, he left his village of Paracuta to settle her aunt to Gama suburb of the capital to follow his secondary schooling at White Elephant in Brasilia.
He lives in a boarding school while attending law school at the University of Brasilia and pay for his studies, he works nights as a graphic designer in the printing of the Senate.
After obtaining his degree in public law at the State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), he teaches constitutional and administrative law. In 1994 he defended a doctoral thesis in Public Law at the University of Paris II (Panthéon-Assas) entitled: "The Supreme Court in the Brazilian political system."
He then worked at the Brazilian Embassy in Finland. Back in Brasilia, becomes an employee including U.S. Attorney's Office until his appointment to the Supreme Court of Justice of Brazil.
Besides his native Portuguese, he speaks fluent French, English, German and Finnish.

When Africans discover beriberi became "Brazil".

Contrary to what one learns today young Brazilians, this is not the Genoese Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) who discovered Brazil in 1452, but the Malians in 1312, that is to say 181 years before that. It is thanks to the adventurous spirit of Mansa Abubakr II.
Great-nephew of the powerful emperor Mandingo, Sundiata, Mansa of Mali becomes in 1300 and left his throne to his son Kankou Moussa in 1312 to undertake the crossing of the Atlantic Ocean.
Before starting his adventure, he began browsing among Arab admirals and gets a large fleet called "Farafina (Black Africa).
His project raised an outcry at the imperial court, but he persists. It sends a first exploratory expedition called "Badenya" who disappears without a trace. Despite this, he decided to embark from the coast of the Gambia today with hundreds of boats flying the flag Mandingo along which are more than 20,000 sailors and captains from all over the empire of Mali.
In the middle of the Ocean, a bloody uprising led by Queen Salimata and the griot of the court erupted on board of the vessels. After mate and after a thousand adventures, he decides to continue the journey. Badly wounded, he died just before his expedition reaches the coasts of the country he had given orders to call "Beriberi" (now Brazil) in 1312.
The Mandingo christen the place of their landing "Bure-Bambuko (current Pernambuco)" in tribute to the two cities Mandingo who had financed the expedition.
His story is told in "ab Masalik Absar fi Al Mamalik Amsar" written by the Egyptian-Syrian, Ibn Fadl Al-Umar (1301-1349), published in Cairo in 1312.

vendredi 18 février 2011

Assassination of Yasser Arafat: Confessions of Ariel Sharon!



  Uri Dan, who died of cancer December 24, 2006 was a journalist, writer and director of Israel. He was a friend of Ariel Sharon, the Israeli prime minister in a coma since January 2006. He published a book of interviews with him titled Ariel Sharon. Intimate interviews with Uri Dan, published by Michel Lafon, Paris, 2006.
In his book, he reveals the contents of a telephone conversation on April 14, 2004 between Ariel Sharon and U.S. President George W. Bush. Israeli Prime Minister informed the President of the United States that it no longer feels bound by the promise he had made in March 2001 not to touch the life of Arafat. George W. Bush says he had to leave Arafat's fate in the hands of God.
Ariel Sharon replied that God needs some help. Faced with the silence of Bush, Sharon has now concluded that he had a free hand to get rid of President of the Palestinian Authority.
When the reporter asked why he did lead President Arafat to justice, he replied that he did not see land of lawyers around the world to defend him and he had to leave work things his way.
Since then, the telephone conversation between Bush and Sharon, Arafat's health has only deteriorated until his death Nov. 11, 2004 in Paris, a mysterious disease.
Many Palestinians are convinced that Yasser Arafat was poisoned by Israeli intelligence. They called in vain for a commission of inquiry. Uri Dan does not deny this accusation, he simply wrote that Sharon will go down in history as the man who assassinated Arafat without killing him!
We will never know the truth because the main defendant, Ariel Sharon lies in a coma since January 2006.

mardi 8 février 2011

When W. Churchill and Gandhi interpreted "Tintin in the Zulu Kingdom"

 
Winston Churchill, war correspondent in South Africa.
        
         At the age of twenty-five years, Winston Churchill, the future Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is sent as a war reporter in South Africa. He is responsible for covering the second war between the British and the Boers (1899-1902) for the London Morning Post. "From November 2, 1899 February 28, 1900, soldiers of his majesty the besieged town of Ladysmith, edge of the Klip River in what is now KwaZulu-Natal.
         Winston Churchill arrived in Escourt, KwaZulu-Natal in 1899. Boarded an armored train in the direction of Colenso, he fell into an ambush. Despite her protests and the presentation of his press card, he is imprisoning at the prison camp in Pretoria war on orders from General Piet Joubert (1938-1900). After two months in jail, he managed to escape so fantastic as he slipped on a coal train and a truck that took him to Maputo (then Lourenco Marques) after a journey of 480 Km .
         Upon returning to camp of General Redvers Buller (1838-1903) in Ladysmith, his reputation had already preceded him in Britain where he is called the minor national hero! In 1900, back in England, earned him the reputation. He is elected to the House of Commons in Oldham.

Mohandas Gandhi, a stretcher-bearer in the forces of General Redvers Buller.
        
         Master Mohandas Gandhi, "British subject" graduate of University College London, admitted to the Bar of England and Wales in 1891 arrived in South Africa in April 1893 to pursue his law career. He is then aged 30 years and just won a one-year contract.
         During the Second Boer War, he enlisted as a stretcher bearer is in the forces of General Buller. He is notably in charge of training his fellow Indians to the profession to "high risk", despite the oppression they suffer under British rule!
         Treaties "coolies", they are scorned in the same way as "Kaffirs", indigenous black majority original Zulu, and Nandi Muhle during this particularly bloody episode of Ladysmith. Three thousand British soldiers were killed by the Boers during the 118 days of war and the city does not even fell.
         Instead of a one-year contract, Gandhi will spend twenty years in South Africa.
         Winston Churchill and Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was probably not crossed. Whatever!
         The city named after Lady Juana Maria Smith, wife of Sir Harry Smith (British governor of Cape Colony and High Commissioner to South Africa from 1847 to 1852) was to forge the political destiny of the father Indian Nation, whose statue stands in front of the temple of Vishnu! As the reputation of Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill!
         During his tumultuous youth Churchill was correspondent "Dialy Graphic" in Cuba, an officer in India, a reporter in Turkey, military in Pakistan, a journalist with the "Pioneer" and "Dialy Telegraph, military in Egypt and Sudan, a war correspondent in "Morning Post" and an officer in South Africa, etc.., could inspire Tintin, the famous reporter in the tassel of the Belgian Georges Prosper Remi, aka Hergé!
         And if Gandhi had inspired the character of the fakir with his arrows of radjaïdjah, the poison that crazy in "Cigars of the Pharaoh"?
____________________________________________ _
For more information: FODEN Giles, Ladysmith, Editions de l'Olivier, Paris, 2004.



lundi 7 février 2011

Dag Hammarskjold, a victim of the West or martyr for peace in Congo?



The final night flight to death.
 
On 17 September 1961, it is 17 p.m. at the N'Dolo airport in Leopoldville (Kinshasa), the United Nations Secretary General, Dag Hammarskjöld and his diplomatic adviser for Congo entering the DC-6B Albertina, registration SE-BDY Sweden Transair Company. The day before, the aircraft was hit by gunfire from mercenaries in Elisabethville (Lubumbashi) without causing any damage. To thwart a possible attack, a decoy plane, the DC6, 00-RIC had been sent to Katanga by a different route. The flight plans of the aircraft and the route of the plane of the Secretary General of the UN have been modified and kept secret.
Flying the aircraft are six crew members experienced all Swedesh: Masters Hallonquist Per and Nils-Eric Aahréus the first officer Lars Litton, the flight engineer Nils Göran Wilhelmsson, the purser and the operator Harald Noork Radio, Karl Erik Rosén. Besides the Secretary-General, the plane took place ten other passengers: The German-American anthropologist, Heinrich A. Wieschhoff (55 years), Director and Deputy Under Secretary for Political Affairs and Security Council Affairs, Mr. Vladimir Fabry American (39 years), Special Advisor to the officer of the United Nations operation in Congo, American William Ranallo (39 years), attached particular the Secretary-General, Ms Alice Lalande, a Canadian national, secretary of the official responsible for the UN operation in Congo, Sergeant U.S. veteran of the Korean War Harold M. Julien, acting head of security service, O.N.U.C.; French Sergeant French, Serge L. Barrau, security service officer, O.N.U.C.; The NCO Hjetle S.O., Persson P.E., and the soldier of the 11th Swedish Infantry Battalion stationed in Leopoldville (Kinshasa).
Dag Hammarskjöld and his diplomatic adviser to the Congo, the Swedish C. Sture Linner (1917-2010) to consult at the last minute: «I wonder if it is wise for us to leave them both, just as the government of Congo is so shaky. Someone has to control the capital in case of bankruptcy» suggests Dag Hammarskjöld. "So I stayed because I knew that I had in Tshombe not trust!" Reports Sture Linner. He had just escaped death. Dag Hammarskjöld, in the beige suit accompanies the tarmac. Both are given a handshake uncertain. It is the ultimate look!  Dag Hammarskjöld back on the plane disappears into the sky towards its Congolese tragic fate in Northern Rhodesia (Zambia).
In the plane, Dag Hammarskjöld's tired, very nervous and prayed in silence."The mission was physically dangerous and politically delicate. Moise Tshombe, the puppet of the Belgians and British were surrounded by a rabble International paid to torpedo all UN efforts to bring peace to Congo", says calmly Sture Linner several years later.  Dag Hammarskjöld is committed to fulfill its mission to an end with the signing of a cease-fire with Moise Tshombe! Because he is convinced that if peace fails in Congo is the end of the UN and the beginning of the Third World War!
In fact, 9 September 1961, the garrison of the Irish UN Jadotville (Likasi), high of 84 men under the command of Pat Quinlan, had ordered to go to Katanga by the French mercenary, Michael Clary after a humiliating fight!

The fatal crash and the martyrdom of the apostle of peace!
 
On September 18, 1961 around midnight, the DC-6B Albertina colors of the United Nations crashed on a hill at 220 km from Lusaka in Zambia after performing rotations around the small airport in Ndola where he was landing.
In the charred wreckage of the aircraft, identifying the United Nations Secretary General, 56 years is simple: he holds in his right hand bloodied his favorite book: "The Life of Jesus" which was slipped into the text his oath April 10, 1953. He succeeded to the Norwegian Trygive Halvedan Lie (1896-1968) who had resigned in December 1952 in controversial circumstances. When placing a control, the latter told him: "You take the most thankless job in the world"
Dag Hammarskjöld Hjamar Agne Carl, son of a former Swedish Prime Minister (1914-1917) and former chairman of the Nobel Peace Prize (1929-1947), born in Jönköping, Sweden September 18, 1905 had just been reelected to a second term September 26, 1957.
The sole survivor, a veteran of the Korean War and American bodyguard of the Secretary-General, Sergeant Harold Julian, severely burned died five days later in hospital after being told the inspector Trevor Wright, Rhodesian police that "the Secretary General of the United Nations at the last minute had given orders to the driver to change destinations."
Why the plane had he refused to identify with the control tower at Ndola? Had he not want to meet Moses Kapenda Tshombe (1919-1969), then a refugee in the mining town of Bancroft (Chililabombwe) south of Kasumbalesa under the protection of former boxing champion who became prime minister of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Welensky Roy (1907 - 1991) ?
Chairman of Katanga was waiting in Ndola with Jean-Baptiste Kibwe (1924-2008), Vice-President and Finance Minister Evariste Kimba (1926-1966), his foreign minister and some Nnende Odillon.

The assigned diplomat to the impossible investigation Nepal Rishikesh Shaha (1925-2002) ... and the real killers.

For days 180 police officers, investigators and journalists quadrillèrent the ground without finding any evidence of bomb.
According to a plausible hypothesis that has leaked into the medium Katanga, a European mercenary, Lieutenant Robert Gheysels, member of the "Service Action" Tshombe would have slipped inside the plane from the airport to Leopoldville N'Dolo (Kinshasa). He would have forced the pilot to change course, causing the crash.
The objective of Moise Tshombe was to remove and imprison Dag Hammarskjöld in Kolwezi to make him suffer the pangs of exile he lived in Chililabombwe (then Bancroft) and demand the immediate withdrawal without conditions Katanga Peacekeepers O.N.U.C.. Hence the shooting and massacres in the plane.
In 1998, "Commission of Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa", chaired by Archbishop Desmond Tutu has concluded that an attack from documents classified "Secret Defense". It turned out that an explosive was placed in the landing gear burst during landing maneuvers.
The mission to assassinate the Secretary General of the United Nations has been initiated by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the Maritime Institute of South Africa (SAIMR) and the British security service, Military Intelligence, Section 5 (MI5) with the active complicity of the Union Miniere du Haut Katanga (UMHK) and was codenamed "Operation Heaven". The head of Operation Celeste was none other than the Chief of the CIA, Allan Welsh Dulles (1893-1969) who said "Dag becomes troublesome and should be rejected."
Dulles had sent a telegram to his counterpart in Leopoldville September 24, 1960: "We want to provide all possible assistance for the elimination of Lumumba". Patrice Lumumba had been assassinated 17 January 1961 in Katanga.
Norwegian General Bjorn Egge (1918-2007), who served in the United Nations Force in Congo in 1960 and who first arrived at the accident site and discover the body of the UN Secretary General showed the largest Norwegian newspaper "Aftenpsoten" July 29, 2005, Dag Hammarskjold was a hole in the forehead, which was defaced with spray on pictures of the corpse. Two other crash victims had traces of bullets and the cabin of the plane also contained traces of bullets fired from inside the plane as the Scandinavian journalist, Teddy Lindstön, arrived first at the scene of the accident.
Throw the plane into the grass, he would have survived the accident before being shot dead.
Indeed, a retired mercenary revealed anonymously on the Norwegian TV channel NRK (Norsk Rikskringkasting) have met a South African mercenary, who died in the 90 who had confessed to shooting Dag Hammarskjöld.
Timothy Kankasa, an eyewitness reported seeing a "UFO" projecting "light rays" on the plane just before the crash. His testimony reported by the official UN inquiry and taken up in the London Daily Telegraph of 20 January 1962 was taken seriously and relaunched the debate on UFOs in the United Nations.

Why the DC6 was flying without lights?
 
In 2007, a friend of Dag Hammarskjöld gathered several testimonies proving that the plane was shot down by a Belgian flying a jet Potez Fouga CM170 Aerospace-Magister, of French manufacture. The Fouga Magister was flown by the Belgian Jose Magain (d. January 2003).
What justifies the euphoria seen in some quarters Belgian and European Leopoldville to the announcement of the death of Dag Hammarskjöld. Belgium, stripped of its richest colony openly supported the secession of Katanga and insisted on his physical elimination!
Why the Swedish government's investigation did cut short?
Why the United Nations investigation has she not gone further?
 
Accident? Sabotage?Attack?
 
The martyr of Peace would it have been a victim of the sympathy of his father Knut Hjalmar Leonard Hammarskjold (1862-1953) to Nazi Germany and he inherited the seat to the Swedish Academy in December 1954?
And if he paid his intervention in the Suez Canal crisis in 1956?  Had he not condemn the Franco-British intervention in Egypt due to the use by these states of their veto power?
And if they paid their intervention in the determination of Algeria in September 1960 and the case of the base of Bizerte in Tunisia in July 1961 against the advice of French President Charles De Gaulle (1890-1970) which dealt with the UN to "thing" or the United Nations' so-called United Nations "and did not want that France participates in peacekeeping operations in Congo Peace?
  His intervention in Congo was not it also questioned by the Soviet Union?
Upon learning of his tragic death, the former U.S. president from 1945 to 1953, Harry Truman (1884-1972) exclaimed: "They killed him." But will we ever know who he was talking about?
Nicknamed "Mister H" the fervent Christian had not himself predicted his tragic fate by writing in "Milestones": "He who seeks adventure will meet in the measure of his courage. He who seeks the sacrifice be sacrificed, to the extent of its purity."

The Reverand William Sheppard and the scandal of the severed hands of the Congolese.



Born in Waynesboro, Virginia March 8, 1865, the black Presbyterian minister, William Sheppard studied at Hampton Institute and then at Tuscaloosa Theological Seminary (now Stillman College) in Alabama. He is ordained in 1888.
         In 1890, he was sent to Congo after being received in audience at the White House by U.S. President Benjamin Harrison (1833-1901) and at Laeken by King Leopold II (1835-1909).
         He arrived in Congo in 1890 where  he was received by the king of Bakuba, Kot aMbweeky. He appreciates the customs and cultural sophistication of language and learns Bakuba language. He received form the sovereign Kuba, the title of "Bope Mekape" and the the nickname which became common in the Congo as «Mundele Ndombe (Black-White)».
         In 1899 he discovered the drama "Hand Cut" and in fact a good description shakes the American consciousness.         
         In 1909, he was accused of slander by the Company dealer Kasai. During his trial in Leopoldville, which caused an uproar in the American press, he is defended by the Belgian Socialist deputy, Mr. Emile Vandervelde (1855-1938).
         The trial resulted in his acquittal. Annoyed, he gave up his mission in Congo in 1910 and finally returned to Louisville in Kansas where he died November 25, 1927.

For more details: Jean KANYARWUNGA I.N. Jean, Democratic Republic of Congo. Generations convicted. A Failed pre-capitalist State, Publibook, Paris, 2006.

dimanche 6 février 2011

The racism on both sides of the Atlantic: «Tintin in the Congo » and «The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn».


A Congolese complaint against "Tintin in the Congo"
 
At the beginning of July 2007, the British Commission for Racial Equality (CRE) had accused the author of "Tintin in the Congo" to "show racism throughout this work and to promote the violent scenes regard to animals. "
On July 23, 2007, Bienvenu Mbutu Mondondo student of political science at the Free University of Brussels filed complaints against the company managing the rights of the cartoonist Herge "Moulinsart" before the Belgian courts for violating the legislation on racism and the demand withdrawal from sale of the album "Tintin in the Congo" and a symbolic one euro in damages. In August 2009 he also filed a complaint in France.
"I want us to stop selling the comic, whether for children or for adults. It is a racist book, filled with colonial propaganda. It is not permissible to cry on Tintin Villagers are forced to work in the construction of a railway track or treats his dog Snowy lazy, "said the complainant.
In the '70s, the artist, Georges Prosper Remi (aka Hergé) (1907-1983) had himself deciphered the positive discourse on the colonization of his album:
"For the Congo, as for Tintin in the Land of the Soviets, it is that I was fed the prejudices of the bourgeois milieu in which I lived ... It was in 1930.. I knew this country than in telling people at the time: "The Negroes are big children, luckily we're there!, etc.. And I have drawn, these Africans, according to those criteria, in the pure paternalistic era was that of Belgium. "
In 2007, "Tintin in the Congo" has been removed for racism ray children Borders bookstores in Britain and the United States.
In South Africa, South African publishers of Hergé, Human & Rousseau, who usually publish in Afrikaans « The adventures of a young reporter », had decided not to translate this album.
On September 9, 2009, The Representative Council of Black Associations (CRAN) Wednesday asked the Minister of Culture Frederic Mitterrand to comment on the possible addition of a warning in the introduction to the album "Tintin
On 3 September 2009, Hedi Putallaz (33 years), a resident of Monthey in the canton of Valais in Switzerland has also brought against "Tintin in the Congo" and demanded that the album be withdrawn from sale and removed from libraries throughout Switzerland . Valais mother and a Tunisian father, Putallaz is married to a citizen of Trinidad and Tobago.
"This cartoon mimics the anti-black stereotypes most abject featuring characters lazy and stupid. This is not the way we inculcate the values of tolerance for children"
The Brooklyn Public Library (New York) has classified "Tintin in the Congo" among the works "offensive", just like Mein Kampf "by Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) and" Tropic of Capricorn "Henry Miller (1891-1980), books off the shelves and classified into "Hell" piece reserved for banned books.
Sweden and Germany, but rather the mistreatment of animals is the basis scandal: Tintin including dynamite explode a rhinoceros that prevents down from the tree where he fled!
But nobody (Hergé did he know himself?) Does note that the song of the boatmen of Father White Uélé Maliba Makasi "was the refrain of a jingle in Lingala ironic black contingent of the Police Force of the column Dhanis to protest their mistreatment imposed by the Independent State of Congo: "Uélé! Maliba makasi! Maliba Makasi! Tosali sali pamba! Tosali PAMBA dirty! We fought for nothing ! We used to hard water and food contaminated! ".
This passive resistance was to culminate in the bloody mutiny of the Force Publique known as the "Revolt of Batetela" in 1897.
On 24 October 2010, at the Fair Comics in Kinshasa, the Congolese Minister of Culture and Arts Kavira Mapeera Jeannette was the apology of Belgian colonialism in defending "Tintin in the Congo" which she described as "head-work "!
Published in 1931, the album is the second in a series of 23 cartoons that trace the adventures of Tintin, the intrepid reporter with the Tuft, and his famous little white dog Snowy. All numbers together, it has sold 220 million copies worldwide, translated into hundreds of languages.
The little white reporter eventually there by making the boy Coco what he stole: his dignity!

And two: The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn!

Huckleberry Finn, best friend of Tom Sawyer is a character from the novel by Mark Twain published in 1885. "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn" from which all the literature stems' said Ernest Hemingway takes place on the Mississippi River.
On 15 January 2007, he was ranked by the weekly "Time" as the fifth best book of all time! From 1920 to 1981, was adapted to film eight times.
On January 4, 2011, "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn" have been dragged before the American courts because the book contains 219 times the word "negro."
"It is shameful that a simple word can form such a barrier for students who appreciate the greatness of this narrative and the acuity of his social criticism", (...) races are important in the frame of the adventures of Huckleberry Finn and Tom Sawyer. The whole question is how to express this idea in the XXI century. " said Alan Gribben Professor of English at Auburn University in Montgomery, Alabama.
The word negro has been erased from the book for American schoolchildren.
"This book is a racist book and change the language to change its power," said Cindy Lowell, director of the Mark Twain Museum in Hannibal, Missouri.

Huck Finn and Mark Twain, I presume!
 
Novelist, essayist and humorist, Mark Twain, whose real name Samuel Langhorne Clemens was born November 30, 1835 in Florida, Missouri, USA. Fatherless at the age of 12 years, he held various activities: apprentice typographer, editor of the newspaper articles of his brother, steamboat pilot on the Mississippi.
Not wanting to fight alongside the Southerners for the maintenance of slavery, he fled to the mountains of Nevada and became a gold digger.
From 1864 he engaged in the practice to defer to San Francisco and travels in Europe as a news correspondent. Après son mariage avec Olivia Langdon en 1870, il s'installe à Hartford dans le Connecticut. After his marriage to Olivia Langdon in 1870, he moved to Hartford in Connecticut.
Thanks to his two novels "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer" (1876) "and" The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885) "he won fame as a humorist writer.
The end of his life is clouded by financial troubles and the death of one of his daughters and his wife. He died April 21, 1910 in Redding, Connecticut.

The Soliloquy of King Leopold's Congo Free Cemetery.

The list is endless, we will never after. Its terrible shadow stretches across the Congo Free State under that shadow and a nation of 15 million innocent souls is wasting away and quickly succumb to his misery. It is a land of graves is a land of graves, is the Congo Free Cemetery. It is a majestic thought: this episode the most dismal of all human history is the work of one man, one man, nothing that a person: Leopold, King of the Belgians. He is personally and solely responsible for the myriad crimes that blackened the history of the Congo State.. He is the sole master there, and it is absolute. He could not prevent crimes by his order, he could stop them today with a speech but he refrains from comment. Because of his pocket. "
In 1905, after the publication of remarks in the Soliloquy of King Leopold, Mark Twain became vice-president of the American section of "Congo Reform Association was founded in London by Edmund Dene Morel (1873-1924) at the instigation of diplomat Irish Sir Roger Casement (1864-1916). He met U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919) to convince him to act for the Congo.
On February 10, 1906, President Roosevelt (Nobel Peace Prize in 1906) having made him understand through Barbour that he would undertake nothing in Congo, he resigned from his post as Vice-President ARC.
In Kinshasa, the Mark Twain Foundation, established by the U.S. embassy in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 2009 grants literary awards to Congolese writers.